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BIAL Foundation
Selection Description
Type Title Begin End
DocumentThe composite scale of morningness for chronotype estimation in Portuguese older adults: Psychometric properties and cutoff scores2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-234
Location: BF-GMS
234 - Inhibitory processing in the aging brain: Disentangling the effects of age, chronotype, time of day and executive control
Duration: 2016-01 - 2020-09
José Augusto Simões Gonçalves Leitão, Ana Cardoso Allen Gomes, Chiara Guerrini, Isabel Maria Barbas dos Santos
Institution(s): Centro de Investigação do Núcleo de Estudos e Intervenção Cognitivo-Comportamental - CINEICC, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Leitão, J.
Secondary author(s):
Gomes, A., Guerrini, C., Santos, I. M.
Number of reproductions:
Cognitive Inhibition / Aging / Chronotype x time-of-day interaction / Event Related Brain Potentials / Psychophysiology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-234.03
Location: BF-GMS
The composite scale of morningness for chronotype estimation in Portuguese older adults: Psychometric properties and cutoff scores
Publication year: 2019
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Chronotype refers to the individual differences that exist in the timing of circadian rhythms (e.g., core body temperature, sleep-wake cycle). The Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) is one of the most widely used measures to estimate chronotype. Despite the importance of accurate chronotype assessments, the psychometric properties of the CSM are not sufficiently explored in older adults. The aim of this study was to examine reliability and validity data of the Portuguese version of the CSM, and to obtain cut-off points (based on percentiles), with a sample of older adults.
The sample comprised 522 participants (55% women) with ages between 65 and 95 years (M = 71.40; SD = 5.69), and up to 19 years of formal education (M = 7.10; SD = 4.56). After providing informed consent, all participants completed the CSM. So as to obtain validity data, participants also completed the Basic Scale on Insomnia symptoms and Quality of Sleep (BaSIQS), and questions concerning sleep schedules, and based on the latter the formula of the Mean Sleep point on Free days - sleep corrected (MSFsc) was used to estimate chronotype.
Regarding the scale's reliability, an alpha value of 0.81 was obtained. All items appeared to contribute to the scale's internal consistency, as removing items would reduce Cronbach's Alpha. The corrected item-total correlations assumed appropriate values (0.33 - 0.60). CSM scores showed a normal distribution, ranging from 19 to 54, M=39.06 (SD = 6.18). Concerning the scale's validity, a non-significant correlation (r = -0.07; p = 0.25) was observed between CSM scores and BaSIQS scores (discriminant validity). Significant correlations were obtained between CSM scores and sleep schedule variables (convergent validity), ranging between -0.34 and -0.79 (i.e., higher morningness scores were accompanied by earlier sleep-wake schedules), and between CSM scores and MSFsc, r = -0.532, p < 0.001. Cut-off points based on P10, P25, P75, and P90, were obtained.
The Portuguese version of the CSM seems to be a valid and reliable measure for chronotype assessment in older adults. Internal consistency analyses suggest that the CSM is a consistent and homogeneous scale in this age group. Validity analyses revealed that the CSM significantly correlates with measures of related constructs (sleep schedules and mid sleep point), whilst presenting a non-significant correlation with a measure of a less related construct (sleep quality). CSM mean scores and cut-off scores were higher than those generally reported for young adults in agreement with the advancing circadian system phase with age.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Buekenhout, I.
Secondary author(s):
Gomes, A., Pires, L., Russo, B., Leitão, J.
Document type:
Number of reproductions:
Buekenhout, I., Gomes, A., Pires, L., Russo, B., & Leitão, J. (2019). The composite scale of morningness for chronotype estimation in Portuguese older adults: Psychometric properties and cutoff scores. Sleep Medicine, 64 (Suppl. 1), S8-S9.
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Chronotype. / Scale / Psychometric properties