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BIAL Foundation
Selection Description
Type Title Begin End
DocumentHaunted by somatic tendencies: spirit infestation as psychogenic illness2002

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 13/2000
2000 Grants
Start date: 2001-01 - 2014-02
13 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-003
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 9/2000
003 - Psychophysiology of transliminality
Duration: 2001-01 - 2004-06
James Houran
Institution(s): SIU School of Medicine, Springfield (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report as a doctoral thesis
13 Articles (published or submitted)
SPSS outputs
Language: eng
Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
Parapsychology / Transliminality / Paranormal belief / Apparitions/haunting / Cognitive processes

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-003.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 9/2000
Haunted by somatic tendencies: spirit infestation as psychogenic illness
Publication year: 2002
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
It has been suggested that haunting and poltergeist episodes are akin to outbreaks of contagious psychogenic illness. Therefore, it might be expected that hypochondriacal and somatic tendencies would significantly predict self-reported experiences of 'spirit infestation' and other paranormal ideations. This prediction was tested on a sample of 314 undergraduate students who completed the Anomalous Experiences Inventory, the Transliminality Scale and three standard questionnaires about hypochondriasis, somatic complaints, and cognitions about body and health. Results from correlational and regression analyses supported predictions, although we found that the type of bodily cognition varied with the specificity of the paranormal experience. For example, indices of spirit infestation coincided with autonomic sensations, perceived paranormal ability was related to catastrophizing cognitions, and general paranormal experiences correlated with somatization traits. Transliminality and paranormal belief contributed positively to nearly all of these associations. These findings are consistent with the idea that some paranormal experiences are partly misattributions of internal experience to external (paranormal) sources - a process that could initiate an episode of contagious (mass) psychogenic illness by encouraging the collective perception of similar 'symptoms' in a group of people due to suggestion and demand characteristics.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
By permission
Houran, J.
Secondary author(s):
Kumar, V. K., Lavertue, N. E.
Document type:
Number of reproductions:
Houran, J., Kumar, V. K., Thalbourne, M. A., & Lavertue, N. E. (2002). Haunted by somatic tendencies: spirit infestation as psychogenic illness. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 5(2), 119-133.
2-year Impact Factor: N/A
Impact factor notes: Impact factor computed since 2020
Times cited: N/A
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: N/A
Keywords: Parapsychology / Paranormal experiences / Suggestion / Contagious

Haunted by somatic tendencies: spirit infestation as psychogenic illness

Haunted by somatic tendencies: spirit infestation as psychogenic illness