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BIAL Foundation
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DocumentExperimenter differences in cognitive correlates of paranormal belief and psi2002

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 13/2000
Title:
2000 Grants
Start date: 2001-01 - 2014-02
Dimension/support:
13 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-034
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2000
Title:
034 - Experimenter effects in parapsychology: Replication and mechanism
Duration: 2000-12 - 2002-01
Researcher(s):
Richard Wiseman, Caroline Watt
Institution(s): The University of Edinburgh (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Wiseman, R.
Secondary author(s):
Watt, C.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP)

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-034.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2000
Title:
Experimenter differences in cognitive correlates of paranormal belief and psi
Publication year: 2002
URL:
http://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-97754938/experimenter-differences-in-cognitive-correlates-of
Contents: http://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=146&SID=V1leIhH4ysTdNpr3OrX&page=1&doc=1
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
It has been claimed that experimenter effects may account for inconsistent findings in the study of cognitive correlates of paranormal belief and in psi research. The present study investigates these 2 strands by having 2 experimenters each administer to 30 participants a paranormal belief questionnaire, 2 tests of cognitive ability (a syllogistic reasoning task and Raven's Progressive Matrices), and an ESP task. For all 60 participants, a significant negative correlation was found between paranormal belief and syllogisms performance. This correlation was attributable to just I of the experimenters, and the experimenteres' belief-cognitive ability correlations significantly differed, thus demonstrating an experimenter effect for this measure. Additional post hoc analyses were conducted to clarify the mechanism underlying the belief-cognitive ability correlation. There was no evidence of an experimenter effect for the ESP task.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Wiseman, R.
Secondary author(s):
Watt, C.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Wiseman, R., & Watt, C. (2002). Experimenter differences in cognitive correlates of paranormal belief and psi. Journal of Parapsychology, 66(4), 371-385.
2-year Impact Factor: 0.516|2002
Times cited: 8|2021-05-14
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q4
Keywords: Critical thinking / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Personality moderators / Paranormal belief

Experimenter differences in cognitive correlates of paranormal belief and psi

Experimenter differences in cognitive correlates of paranormal belief and psi

Modelling supernatural belief: Cognition and personality2020

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
355 - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief
Duration: 2015-06 - 2017-09
Researcher(s):
Ian Scott Baker, David Sheffield, Malcolm Schofield, Paul Staples
Institution(s): University of Derby, Derby (UK)
Abstract/Results: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Baker, I.
Secondary author(s):
Sheffield, D., Schofield, M., Staples, P.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Supernatural belief / Cognitive Processes / Personality / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355.05
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Modelling supernatural belief: Cognition and personality
Publication year: 2020
URL:
https://www.spr.ac.uk/sites/spr.ac.uk/files/2020-84-3%20JSPR%20COVER.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
This study aimed to create and test a new model of supernatural belief based on cognition and personality. Two theories of belief in the paranormal were evaluated in two studies: the Cognitive Deficits Hypothesis and the Psychodynamic Functions Hypothesis. The first study examined the relationship between cognition, supernatural belief, critical thinking (how a person reasons and makes decisions), cognitive reflection (a person's ability to check for intuitive errors) and confidence, in particular when looking at different types of belief such as paranormal and religious. The second study incorporated the personality measures of dogmatism, schizotypy and the fifteen factors of personality alongside supernatural belief and cognition. Study two further extended the findings of study one by building a new model of belief, cognition, and personality. Study one recruited 179 participants. A MANOVA followed by a Discriminant Functions Analysis was used to examine cognition and revealed one profile, which was named "reflective thinkers". The profile was more likely to contain people who were sceptics, and believers in a range of phenomena, and least likely to contain paranormal believers. Study two recruited 152 participants and looked at personality alongside cognition. A MANOVA followed by a Discriminant Functions Analysis revealed two profiles that were interpreted as "sensitive and abstract thinkers" and "reflective metacognitive dogmatists". The "sensitive and abstract thinkers" profile was least likely to contain sceptics and religious believers, and more likely to contain people who believed in the paranormal alone, and believers in both religion and the paranormal. The "reflective metacognitive dogmatists" profile was most likely to contain religious believers, and believers in both religion and the paranormal, and least likely to contain paranormal believers. Following this analysis, Structural Equation Modelling was used to test seven different models of personality, cognition and belief. The model with the best fit to the data found that personality predicted belief, which in turn predicted cognition. Studies one and two found the "sceptics" and "religious believers" had remarkably similar profiles. The "believers" (people who believe in both religious and paranormal phenomena) and "paranormal believers" (people who believe in the paranormal only) were not reflective thinkers, and not metacognitively active. However, spiritual (religious and paranormal) and paranormal belief may require a more intuitive thinking style to be present. These two studies showed limited support for the Cognitive Deficits Hypothesis and Psychodynamic Functions Hypothesis. The Structural Equation Model showed that schizotypy was the main predictor of belief, and while belief predicted cognition, this relationship could be reciprocal.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Schofield, M.
Secondary author(s):
Baker, I. S., Staples, P. A., Sheffield, D.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Schofield, M., Baker, I. S., Staples, P. A., & Sheffield, D. (2020). Modelling supernatural belief: Cognition and personality. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 84(3), 129-156.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Supernatural belief / Belief in the paranormal / Critical thinking / Cognition / Religious beliefs / Structural Equation Modelling