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BIAL Foundation
DE:"Questionnaire scrutiny"
Selection Description
Type Title Begin End
DocumentThe paranormal health beliefs scale: an evaluation using cognitive interviewing2024

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2022
Location: BF-GMS
2022 Grants
Start date: 2023-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2022-069
Location: BF-GMS
069 - Psychometric validation of a questionnaire for assessing paranormal health beliefs and statistically modelling the effects of the construct on health outcomes longitudinally
Duration: 2023-06
Andrew Denovan
Institution(s): Department of People and Performance, Manchester Metropolitan University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Research Funding Agreement
Language: eng
Denovan, A.
Number of reproductions:
Paranormal health belief / Well-being / Health outcomes / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2022-069.02
Location: BF-GMS
The paranormal health beliefs scale: an evaluation using cognitive interviewing
Publication year: 2024
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Paranormal health beliefs denote the inclination to endorse illusory supernatural notions about well-being and treatment. These ideations are important since they potentially influence perceptions of health and allied behaviors. Noting this, researchers in Italy developed and verified the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale (PHBS). Despite initial promising outcomes, the construct and measurement properties of the PHBS have remained under investigated. This is likely due to the fact that the instrument draws heavily on traditional Italian social, political, and religious influences and is overly culturally specific. Hence, items do not generalize well across populations and nationalities. Acknowledging these factors, this study used cognitive interviewing (think aloud protocol and concurrent probing) to assess the suitability of the PHBS for general use. Concurrently, the intention was to identify necessary modifications that would enhance scale performance. Fourteen interviewees (eight males and six females), evenly distributed across two rounds, participated. Round 1 focused on comprehension and perception of the PHBS. Cognitive interviews identified issues with culturally particular content/points of reference, phraseology, and wording. To address these a modified version of the PHBS was produced. Round 2 then examined the effectiveness of changes. Analysis revealed fewer concerns, although difficulties with ambiguity, complex terminology, and response scale appropriateness persisted. Overall, interviews indicated that a focus on illusory (rather than paranormal) health beliefs would improve scale utility. Methodologically, cognitive interviewing provided invaluable insights into the effectiveness of the PHBS and identified ways in which researchers could adapt the instrument for use with other cultures.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Denovan, A.
Secondary author(s):
Dagnall, N., Drinkwater, K. G.
Document type:
Number of reproductions:
Denovan, A., Dagnall, N., & Drinkwater, K. G. (2024). The paranormal health beliefs scale: an evaluation using cognitive interviewing. Frontiers in Psychology, 15, 1306372.
2-year Impact Factor: 3.8|2022
Impact factor notes: Impact factor not available yet for 2024
Times cited: 0|2024-03-07
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q1
Keywords: Cognitive interviewing / Illusory thinking / Paranormal health beliefs / Paranormal health beliefs scale / Questionnaire scrutiny

The paranormal health beliefs scale: an evaluation using cognitive interviewing

The paranormal health beliefs scale: an evaluation using cognitive interviewing