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Selection Description
Type Title Begin End
DocumentTransliminality as an index of the sheep-goat variable2003

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 13/2000
Title:
2000 Grants
Start date: 2001-01 - 2014-02
Dimension/support:
13 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-003
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 9/2000
Title:
003 - Psychophysiology of transliminality
Duration: 2001-01 - 2004-06
Researcher(s):
James Houran
Institution(s): SIU School of Medicine, Springfield (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report as a doctoral thesis
13 Articles (published or submitted)
SPSS outputs
Language: eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Transliminality / Paranormal belief / Apparitions/haunting / Cognitive processes

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-003.09
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 9/2000
Title:
Transliminality as an index of the sheep-goat variable
Publication year: 2003
Accessibility:
Document exists in file (previous version submitted for publication)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Thalbourne, M. A.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Thalbourne, M. A., & Houran, J. (2003). Transliminality as an index of the sheep-goat variable. European Journal of Parapsychology, 18, 3-14.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Transliminality / Sheep-goat effect

Transliminality as an index of the sheep-goat variable

Transliminality as an index of the sheep-goat variable

DocumentInvestigations of the I Ching: I. Relationships between psi, time perspective, paranormal belief and meaningfulness2008

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-007
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2006
Title:
007 - Further investigations of the I Ching: Reliability and replication studies
Duration: 2007-03 - 2008-05
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Anomalous Psychology Research Unit, Dep. of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
2 Articles
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Psychokinesis (PK)

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-007.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2006
Title:
Investigations of the I Ching: I. Relationships between psi, time perspective, paranormal belief and meaningfulness
Publication year: 2008
URL:
http://www.aiprinc.org/abstracts_8.htm
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
The I Ching is an ancient Chinese system of divination. The user throws three coins, six times, to generate one of 64 possible six-line symbols or hexagrams, and then consults the associated divinatory reading. It is conjectured that the I Ching process is underscored by a paranormal process the cause of which is likely to be the individual user. Past research has produced mixed results—in five studies, effects have ranged from chance, to significantly above chance, but no effect significantly below chance has been found. In a study by L. Storm (2006) it was theorised that hexagram targeting may accord with the participant’s time perspective—a present time perspective (PTP) refers to immediate events; a future time perspective (FTP) refers to what fate has in store. PTP and FTP types are determined from scores on the Time Perspective Inventory (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). In Storm’s (2006) study and the present study it was hypothesised that PTP types prefer first-hexagrams, and FTP types prefer second hexagrams. Storm (2006) produced results that were in the directions hypothesized. In this replication study (N = 150), hit rates for PTP types on first-hexagram hitting (30%) did exceed hit rates for FTP types (25%) as hypothesised, although the difference was not significant. The hit rate for FTP types on second-hexagram hitting (22%) did not exceed the hit rate for PTP types (27%). Hit rates were above chance on first-hexagram hitting (25.3%), but below chance on second-hexagram hitting (24.6%). Neither effect was significant. First-hexagram hitters rated their readings significantly higher on meaningfulness than first-hexagram missers. This effect was interpreted as fulfilling a theoretical condition that defines “meaningful coincidence” or synchronicity (Jung, 1960). Correlations between pro attitude and hexagram hit rates were not significant, but a significant sheep-goat effect was found. A just-significant aggregated hexagram hit rate across the six studies was found: 27% (p = .057).
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Storm, L. (2008). Investigations of the I Ching: I. Relationships between psi, time perspective, paranormal belief and meaningfulness. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 8(2), 103-127.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: I Ching / Psi / Time perspective inventory / Sheep-goat effect / Synchronicity / Meaningfulness

Investigations of the I Ching: I. Relationships between psi, time perspective, paranormal belief and meaningfulness

Investigations of the I Ching: I. Relationships between psi, time perspective, paranormal belief and meaningfulness

DocumentSearching for an optimal level of transliminality in relation to putative psi2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
157 - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality
Duration: 2007-01 - 2008-07
Researcher(s):
James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems Inc., Springfield (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
3 Articles
Language: eng
Related objects:
PT/FB/BL-2008-59
Notes: The final report consists of two published articles that were recorded and scanned separately
Author: Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Transliminality / Paranormal belief

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Searching for an optimal level of transliminality in relation to putative psi
Publication year: 2009
Accessibility:
Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Secondary author(s):
Lange, R.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Houran, J., & Lange, R. (2009). Searching for an optimal level of transliminality in relation to putative psi. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 73, 92-102.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Transliminality / Psi / Sheep-goat effect / Experimenter effects / Parapsychology / Rasch scaling / Sex

Searching for an optimal level of transliminality in relation to putative psi

Searching for an optimal level of transliminality in relation to putative psi

DocumentI Ching outcomes from experimental manipulations of transliminality and paranormal belief2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
157 - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality
Duration: 2007-01 - 2008-07
Researcher(s):
James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems Inc., Springfield (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
3 Articles
Language: eng
Related objects:
PT/FB/BL-2008-59
Notes: The final report consists of two published articles that were recorded and scanned separately
Author: Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Transliminality / Paranormal belief

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
I Ching outcomes from experimental manipulations of transliminality and paranormal belief
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://www.aiprinc.org/abstracts_12.htm
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
We explored experimenter effects in a study with the Chinese book of divination the I Ching, which contains 64 hexagrams (6-line structures) and associated readings. Three coins are thrown six times to generate one of these hexagrams. Participants and Experimenters (combined N = 120) were recruited based on scoring patterns on Transliminality and Paranormal Belief to produce four experimental groups (N = 15 pairs each) of varying levels of Paranormal Belief and Transliminality: High/High; High/Low; Low/High and Low/Low. Participants selected 16 of 64 hexagram-descriptor pairs, based on their emotional or cognitive states of mind. A ‘hit’ was observed when 1 of the 16 choices would come up (PMCE = .25). It was predicted that the hit rate of the High/High group would be significantly greater than chance, the High/High group would score significantly higher than the three control conditions (High/Low, Low/High, Low/Low), and that the three control conditions would score similarly. It was further expected that Transliminality, Paranormal Belief and Sex would show main and interaction effects for hit rate on the I Ching task. The hit rate on First Hexagrams was 27 out of 60 (45%; p < .001), which far exceeds the 25% chance level, and the High/High group did have the highest raw score hit rate, but there were no significant main or interaction effects of Transliminality, Paranormal Belief or Sex. These surprising findings suggest that the specific differences in experimental protocols between the present study and past research are partly responsible. The two main differences discussed involve (i) the notion of spontaneity and ambiguity related to the task and (ii) treating psi outcomes on the I Ching as a Rasch-trait variable rather than as independent observations.
Accessibility: Document exists in file (previous version submitted for publication)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Secondary author(s):
Lange, R.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Houran, J., & Lange, R. (2012). I Ching outcomes from experimental manipulations of transliminality and paranormal belief. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 12(1), 39-58.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Transliminality / I Ching / Psi / Sheep-goat effect / Experimenter effects / Parapsychology / Rasch scaling / Sex effects

I Ching outcomes from experimental manipulations of transliminality and paranormal belief

I Ching outcomes from experimental manipulations of transliminality and paranormal belief

DocumentFinal report - The Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-056
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 3/2008
Title:
056 - The Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test
Duration: 2009-03 - 2010-09
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Suitbert Ertel, Adam Rock
Institution(s): Anomalistic and Transpersonal Psychology Research Unit, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Ertel, S., Rock, A. J.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-056.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 3/2008
Title:
Final report - The Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa5608_21022014.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
According to Reactance Theory (Brehm & Brehm, 1981), when an individual's freedom is threatened through some form of coercion, reactance usually sets in. Reactance is “a motivational state aimed at restoring the threatened freedom” (Silvia, 2005, p. 277), which may explain the sheep-goat effect—i.e., the tendency for believers („sheep") to psi-hit and non-believers („goats") to psi-miss. In this study, the effects of reactance on psi performance are investigated in Ertel's (2005b,c) Ball Selection Test. It was hypothesized that goats are more reactant than sheep in psi tests because goats are predisposed to disproving the psi hypothesis which requires noncompliance. The sheep-goat measure used in the study was the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale (Thalbourne, 1995). In a laboratory setting, participants completed up to four runs (60 trials/run) of paranormal target-seeking (trying to predict the numbers on ping-pong balls). Hit rate for the whole sample (N = 82) was significant, 21.06% (p = .002), where PMCE = 20%. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition (n = 42) or treatment (n = 40) condition requiring them to read an opinionated statement that induces reactance. The opinionated communication was an adapted text used successfully by Silvia (2005). There was a significant reactance effect, with „reactants" (mean percentage = 20.26%) scoring significantly lower than „controls" (mean percentage = 21.74%), but no significant sheep-goat effect, though hit rates were in the direction hypothesized—the significant sheep hit rate (21.51%) was higher than the hit rate for goats (20.82%), but not significantly. When simple effects were tested, reactant sheep, with a 19.95% hit rate, scored significantly lower than control sheep with their hit rate of 23.09%. Reactant goats (19.92%) also scored lower than control goats (20.74%), but not significantly. Note that reactant goats scored the lowest of all four sub-groups, and this was expected according to reactance theory about goats, but they were not significantly lower than any other group. Post hoc, it was surmised that high reactance at the start of psi-testing may be a „trait" in goats (but not sheep; i.e., there may be a ceiling effect for goats on „state" reactance), so that sheep may be more vulnerable to reactance than goats, and this might explain the significant simple effect for sheep. Future studies on sheep-goat effects should include a measure of trait reactance so that pre-experimental reactance can be controlled.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Ertel, S., Rock, A. J.
Document type:
Final report
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Precognition / Sheep-goat effect / Reactance

Final report - The Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test

Final report - The Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test

DocumentFinal report - Attention training and the feeling of being stared at2008

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-174
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2006
Title:
174 - Experimental investigation of a Psi training program
Duration: 2007-05 - 2009-01
Researcher(s):
Marilyn Schlitz, Dean Radin, Cassandra Vieten, Colin Cherot
Institution(s): Institute of Noetic Sciences, California (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Schlitz, M.
Secondary author(s):
Radin, D., Vieten, C., Cherot, C.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Psychokinesis (PK) / Remote staring/being stared at / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Intuition / Paranormal belief

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-174.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2006
Title:
Final report - Attention training and the feeling of being stared at
Publication year: 2008
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa17406.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
To test the claim that transformative practices may lead to enhanced intuitive experiences, we conducted an experiment on the “sense of being stared at” in a group of sixteen experienced TM-Sidhi meditators vs. sixteen non-meditators. The experiment was controlled by a web-based program, which used a web-cam to present the live image of a distant person over the Internet. The program randomly assigned staring vs. non-staring trials based on a true random source, and it automatically recorded the stared-at person’s guesses. The stared-at person in this test was located inside a secure, electromagnetically shielded chamber, and the chamber was monitored by an experimenter, to rule out potential collusion between the participants.
As expected, the meditation group’s scores on a self-transcendence scale were significantly higher than the control group’s, but the meditators did not show enhanced performance on the experimental task. Instead, the meditators obtained chance results
while the control group showed nearly significant ability to detect distance staring.
A consistently positive finding in this experiment was a confirmation of the “sheepgoat” effect: Participants’ expectations and beliefs strongly predicted their actual performance. Each of four questions asking about expectations of success showed that
participants who expected to do well performed consistently better than those who did not.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Schlitz, M.
Secondary author(s):
Konrad, A., Radin, D., Vieten, C., Cherot, C.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
2
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Meditation / Sense of being stared at / Sheep-goat effect / Expectancy / Intuition / Attention

Final report - Attention training and the feeling of being stared at

Final report - Attention training and the feeling of being stared at

DocumentThe Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-056
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 3/2008
Title:
056 - The Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test
Duration: 2009-03 - 2010-09
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Suitbert Ertel, Adam Rock
Institution(s): Anomalistic and Transpersonal Psychology Research Unit, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Ertel, S., Rock, A. J.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-056.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 3/2008
Title:
The Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.bial.com/simposio/Livro_de_Actas_8_Simposio.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Parapsychological research findings suggest that the motivations of believers in
psi (sheep) and skeptics (goats) tend to be antithetical. According to Reactance Theory
(Brehm & Brehm, 1981), when an individual’s freedom is threatened through some form
of coercion, reactance usually sets in, which is “a motivational state aimed at restoring the
threatened freedom” (Silvia, 2005, p. 277). Reactance even leads to ‘boomerang effects’
(i.e., noncompliance). It is proposed that sheep comply with experimenter’s instructions,
whereas goats do not, which may explain the so-called sheep-goat effect (i.e., sheep tend
to psi-hit; goats tend to psi-miss). In this study, the effects of reactance on psi
performance is sought in Ertel’s (2005a,b) Ball Selection Test. Specifically, it is proposed
that a reactance treatment (an opinionated communication meant to evoke a reactance
response) affects goats more than sheep, so that goats psi performance will be more
adversely affected than sheep. This proposition is based on the hypothesis that sheep are
less reactant than goats in psi tests because goats are predisposed to disproving the psi
hypothesis which requires noncompliance. The sheep-goat measure to be used in the
study is the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale (Thalbourne, 1995). The opinionated
communication is an adapted text used succesfully by Silvia (2005). In a laboratory setting,
in a single session, participants each complete up to four runs (60 trials/run) of
paranormal target-seeking (i.e., calling numbers prior to selecting unseen numbered ping
pong balls from a black bag). Psi effects will be statistically determined as a percentage of
succesful calls (where PMCE = 20%). Total number of participants to be tested is 150.
Interim results only (N = 53) are as follows: (i) Hit rate was significant for the whole sample
at 21.41% (p = .0002; ES = .04); (ii) Mean hit rate for sheep (21.76%) was higher than goats
(21.23%), but not significantly, F(1, 49) = 0.43, p = .257 (one-tailed); (iii) Reactance
affected scoring in the hypothesised direction, but not significantly, F(1, 49) = 1.19, p =
.140 (one-tailed); and (iv) against our hypothesis, goats were less reactant than sheep, but
not significantly, F(1, 49) = 0.70, p = .204 (one-tailed). The groups are too small, and
therefore they lack power, so no firm conclusions can be made at this stage.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Ertel, S., Rock, A. J.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Reference:
Storm, L., Ertel, S., & Rock, A. J. (2010). The Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium of Fundação Bial (p. 250). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Psychokinesis (PK) / Reactance / Psi / Sheep-goat effect

Novo ficheiro

Novo ficheiro

DocumentThe sheep-goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test2013

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-056
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 3/2008
Title:
056 - The Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test
Duration: 2009-03 - 2010-09
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Suitbert Ertel, Adam Rock
Institution(s): Anomalistic and Transpersonal Psychology Research Unit, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Ertel, S., Rock, A. J.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-056.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 3/2008
Title:
The sheep-goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test
Publication year: 2013
URL:
http://web.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=08923310&AN=92966144&h=E67fJ87ESuNf7Z7dedUtqFVGykRJ4L5%2f8N0POwPGw%2fqLP4dYs7CM5EC6pXj6YxdiK%2buWNWx4aIWEwUMtkm14pQ%3d%3d&crl=f
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
According to Reactance Theory (Brehm & Brehm 1981), when an individual's freedom is threatened through some orm of coercion, reactance usually sets in. Reactance is "a motivational state aimed at restoring the threatened freedom" (Silvia 2005:277), which may explain the tendency for believers ('sheep') to psi-hit and non-believers ('goats') to psi-miss. In this study, the effect of reactance on psi performance was investigated using Ertel's (2005a, 2005b) Ball Selection Test. It was hypothesized that goats are more reactant than sheep in psi tests because goats are predisposed to disproving the psi hypothesis which requires noncompliance. In a laboratory setting, participants completed up to four runs (60 trials/run) of paranormal target-seeking (trying to predict the numbers on table tennis balls). Hit rate for the whole sample (N = 82) was significant, 21.06% (p = .002), where PMCE = 20%. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition (n = 42) or treatment condition (n = 40) requiring them to read a statement that induced reactance. A significant reactance effect was found. There was no significant sheep-goat effect, but the relationship between psi-hit rates and sheep-goat scores was significant. Reactant goats scored significantly lower than control sheep, as expected, but not significantly lower than control goats. Pre-test scores on Tension and Confusion, as measured on The Profile of Mood States--Short Form (POMS-SF) (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman 1971 ), predicted psi outcomes.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Ertel, S., Rock, A. J.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Storm, L., Ertel, S., & Rock, A. J. (2013). The sheep-goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 27(3), 393-411.
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Ball selection test / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Sheep-goat effect / Psychokinesis (PK) / Psi / Reactance

The sheep-goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test

The sheep-goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test

DocumentParanormal effects and behavioural characteristics of participants in a forced-choice psi task: Ertel’s Ball Selection Test under scrutiny2013

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-056
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 3/2008
Title:
056 - The Sheep-Goat effect as a matter of compliance vs. noncompliance: The effect of reactance in a forced-choice ball selection test
Duration: 2009-03 - 2010-09
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Suitbert Ertel, Adam Rock
Institution(s): Anomalistic and Transpersonal Psychology Research Unit, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Ertel, S., Rock, A. J.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-056.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 3/2008
Title:
Paranormal effects and behavioural characteristics of participants in a forced-choice psi task: Ertel’s Ball Selection Test under scrutiny
Publication year: 2013
URL:
http://aiprinc.org/abstracts_13.htm
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
In a previous study (Storm, Ertel, & Rock, 2013), we demonstrated that Ertel’s (2005b,c) Ball Selection Test (a.k.a. the Ball Test) can be used to test Reactance Theory (Brehm & Brehm, 1981), and the Sheep-Goat Effect (SGE; the tendency for believers [‘sheep’] to psi-hit and non-believers [‘goats’] to psi-miss). The Ball Test is a forced-choice psi task involving the blind selection of numbered ping-pong balls after numbers are called by the participant (a hit is a match between a ‘called’ number and a ‘selected’ ball number). According to Reactance Theory, when an individual’s freedom is threatened through some form of coercion, we may expect reactance, which is “a motivational state aimed at restoring the threatened freedom” (Silvia, 2005, p. 277). Reactance may explain the SGE. In that study (N = 82), we found a significant forced-choice hit rate of 21.06% where PMCE = 20% (p = .002). Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition (n = 42) or treatment (n = 40) condition requiring them to read a statement that induced reactance. We found a significant reactance effect, and a significant SGE. In the present study, we sought answers to some crucial questions concerning the ball test’s validity, including possible displacement effects, and possible biases in number-calling and selection-behaviour. We found that participants did avoid calling numbers if they had just called them or just selected them from the bag. We found no evidence of hits being mere artifacts caused by sensory leakage or mnemonic aids.
Accessibility: Document exist in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Ertel, S., Rock, A. J.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Storm, L., Ertel, S., & Rock, A. J. (2013). Paranormal effects and behavioural characteristics of participants in a forced-choice psi task: Ertel’s Ball Selection Test under scrutiny. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 13, 111-131.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Ball selection test / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Psychokinesis (PK) / Reactance / Psi / Sheep-goat effect

Paranormal effects and behavioural characteristics of participants in a forced-choice psi task: Ertel’s Ball Selection Test under scrutiny

Paranormal effects and behavioural characteristics of participants in a forced-choice psi task: Ertel’s Ball Selection Test under scrutiny

DocumentFinal report - An Investigation of the I Ching Using the Q-Sort Method and a PK-RNG Design2014

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012
Location: SEC PCA
Title:
2012 Grants
Start date: 2013-02

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-127
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2012
Title:
127 - An Investigation of the I Ching Using the Q-Sort Method and a PK-RNG Design
Duration: 2013-03 - 2014-06
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide and Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research, Incorporated, Gladesville (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Psychokinesis (PK) / Paranormal belief

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-127.01
Location: SEC PCA - 127/12
Title:
Final report - An Investigation of the I Ching Using the Q-Sort Method and a PK-RNG Design
Publication year: 2014
URL:
https://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa12712.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
A synchronicity-like paranormal effect was attempted in the laboratory by instructing 120 participants to construct a representation of their inner mental (cognitive/emotional) states using a Q-Sort Grid in which 64 I Ching descriptor-pairs were thoughtfully placed (i.e., ranked from -7 to +7), followed by the creation of an outer event using a Random Number Generator (RNG) to generate an I Ching hexagram with an associated reading that is rated for meaningfulness. There were four hypothesized psi-predictors: (i) ‘pro attitude’ measured on the Pro Attitude Scale; (ii) paranormal belief measured on the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale, where ‘sheep’ are believers in psychic ability, and ‘goats’ are skeptics; (iii) trait reactance (i.e., resistance to compliance; hypothesized to be detrimental to psi) measured on the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale; and (iv) Meaningfulness (of hexagram reading). As expected, Q-Sort scores were positive for sheep, and there were a number of sheep-goat psi effects, including a significantly high mean RNG-PK score for sheep. Meaningfulness correlated significantly with Direct-Hitting (scores of +7) and Binary-Hitting (scores of +6 & +7). Rasch-scaled ASGS scores correlated significantly with Pro Attitude and Meaningfulness. A significant reactance effect was found whereby the mean Q-Sort score was lower for ‘reactants’ compared to ‘controls’ (reactance compromises goats’ psi performance through noncompliance). Q-Sort scores were lower for reactant goats, reactant sheep, and reactant ‘indecisives’ who are mid-range scorers on paranormal belief scales. More research on indecisives is warranted since their scoring patterns are unpredictable, suggesting that the sheep-goat effect is not linear.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Document type:
Final report
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Extrasensory perception (ESP) / I Ching / Meaningfulness / Psychokinesis (PK) / Random number generator / Reactance / Sheep-goat effect

Final report - An Investigation of the I Ching Using the Q-Sort Method and a PK-RNG Design

Final report - An Investigation of the I Ching Using the Q-Sort Method and a PK-RNG Design

DocumentAn Investigation of the I Ching using the Q-Sort Method and an RNG-PK Design: I. Four Possible Psi Predictors2014

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012
Location: SEC PCA
Title:
2012 Grants
Start date: 2013-02

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-127
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2012
Title:
127 - An Investigation of the I Ching Using the Q-Sort Method and a PK-RNG Design
Duration: 2013-03 - 2014-06
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide and Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research, Incorporated, Gladesville (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Psychokinesis (PK) / Paranormal belief

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-127.02
Location: SEC PCA - 127/12
Title:
An Investigation of the I Ching using the Q-Sort Method and an RNG-PK Design: I. Four Possible Psi Predictors
Publication year: 2014
URL:
http://www.aiprinc.org/abstracts_14.htm
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
An attempt was made to emulate a paranormal event (i.e., synchronicity) in the laboratory by instructing participants to construct a representation of their inner mental (cognitive/emotional) states using a Q-Sort Grid in which 64 I Ching descriptor-pairs were thoughtfully placed (i.e., ranked from -7 to +7), followed by the creation of an outer event using a Random Number Generator (RNG) to generate an I Ching hexagram with an associated reading that is rated for meaningfulness. There were four hypothesized psi-predictors: (i) ‘pro attitude’ measured on the Pro Attitude Scale (Thalbourne & Storm, in press); (ii) paranormal belief measured on the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale (Thalbourne, 1995), where ‘sheep’ are believers in psychic ability, and ‘goats’ are skeptics; (iii) trait reactance (i.e., resistance to compliance; hypothesized to be detrimental to psi) measured on the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale (Hong & Faedda, 1996); and (iv) Meaningfulness (of I Ching hexagram readings). The Q-Sort task did not yield any significant effects, although as expected Q-Sort scores were positive for sheep. There were a number of sheep-goat psi effects, including a significantly high mean RNG-PK score for sheep. Of the four psi predictors, Meaningfulness correlated marginally significantly with Direct-Hitting (scores of +7), and significantly with Binary-Hitting (scores of +6 and +7). Scores on the Rasch-scaled version of the ASGS (Lange & Thalbourne, 2002) correlated significantly with Pro Attitude and Meaningfulness. There was a 24% success rate at the .05 level, and a significant 72% of our tests were in the directions hypothesized. It is argued that the Q-Sort Grid may need simplification, and participants should give feedback on RNG-PK task complexity.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Rock, A. J.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Storm, L., & Rock, A. J. (2014). An Investigation of the I Ching using the Q-Sort Method and an RNG-PK Design: I. Four Possible Psi Predictors. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 14(1), 29-67.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Synchronicity / Meaningfulness / Random number generator / Sheep-goat effect

DocumentFinal report - Testing a Methodological Formula for Consistent Hit Rates: Matching Psi Ability to Task Difficulty2014

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012
Location: SEC PCA
Title:
2012 Grants
Start date: 2013-02

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-038
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2012
Title:
038 - Testing a Methodological Formula for Consistent Hit Rates: Matching Psi Ability to Task Difficulty
Duration: 2013-02 - 2014-09
Researcher(s):
James Houran, Rense Lange
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems, Inc., Illinois (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Language: eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Secondary author(s):
Lange, R.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Transliminality / Extrasensory perception (ESP)

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-038.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2012
Title:
Final report - Testing a Methodological Formula for Consistent Hit Rates: Matching Psi Ability to Task Difficulty
Publication year: 2014
URL:
https://www.bial.com/imagem/Grant3812.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND AND AIMS
Two studies investigate “task difficulty” as a moderator variable in experimental psi research, consistent with traditional learning theory.
METHOD AND RESULTS
Study 1 measured Transliminality, Paranormal Belief (New Age Philosophy), Intuitive Thinking, and self-reported paranormal abilities and experiences (Anomalous Experiences Inventory), and one run of 25 trials of a newly published psi task using 124 hospitality professionals. The perceptual-personality variables (except intuitive thinking) conformed to a probabilistic Rasch hierarchy that itself corresponded to a Rasch hierarchy of self-reported paranormal abilities, experiences, and hit rate on the computerized task. Those scoring above mean-chance expectations on the psi task also scored suggestively higher on the Rasch measure of psi ability than those scoring at or below mean-chance expectations. Study 2 tested the predictive validity of these conclusions in a convenience sample of 153 hospitality professionals independent from Study 1. Participants completed the same measures from Study 1 and completed the same psi task. Those with expected trait ability inferred from the Rasch measure of psi ability (“targets”) scored significantly higher on hit rate on the computer task than “controls” with scores inferring low psi ability as inferred from the Rasch measure. Overall hit rate of the “targets” on the psi task was suggestive and in the predicted direction, albeit non-significant.
CONCLUSIONS
Cumulative results suggest validate “task difficulty” as a potentially important mediating variable neither previously considered nor controlled for in experimental psi studies. Matching participants’ estimated psi abilities for psi to the estimated difficulty level of specific psi tasks may overcome replication issues in parapsychology.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Document type:
Final report
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Psi / Intuition / Rasch scaling / Sheep-goat effect / Moderator variables / Task difficulty

Final report - Testing a Methodological Formula for Consistent Hit Rates: Matching Psi Ability to Task Difficulty

Final report - Testing a Methodological Formula for Consistent Hit Rates: Matching Psi Ability to Task Difficulty

DocumentTechnical report. Matching psi ability to task difficulty: A methodological proposal and pilot study2014

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012
Location: SEC PCA
Title:
2012 Grants
Start date: 2013-02

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-038
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2012
Title:
038 - Testing a Methodological Formula for Consistent Hit Rates: Matching Psi Ability to Task Difficulty
Duration: 2013-02 - 2014-09
Researcher(s):
James Houran, Rense Lange
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems, Inc., Illinois (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Language: eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Secondary author(s):
Lange, R.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Transliminality / Extrasensory perception (ESP)

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-038.05
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2012
Title:
Technical report. Matching psi ability to task difficulty: A methodological proposal and pilot study
Publication year: 2014
Accessibility:
Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Secondary author(s):
Lange, R.
Document type:
Book
Reference:
Houran, J., & Lange, R. (2014). Technical report. Matching psi ability to task difficulty: A methodological proposal and pilot study. Chatham, IL: Integrated Knowledge Systems.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Psi / Intuition / Rasch scaling / Sheep-goat effect / Moderator variables / Task difficulty

File340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires2015-042017-07

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires
Duration: 2015-04 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Ken Drinkwater, Tony Jinks
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Keywords:
Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Quasi-belief / Parapsychology

File062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool2017-112019-04

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2016 Grants
Start date: 2017-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Duration: 2017-11 - 2019-04
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Research Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Author: Storm, L.
Keywords:
Imagery cultivation / Reactance / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Parapsychology

DocumentFinal report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires
Duration: 2015-04 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Ken Drinkwater, Tony Jinks
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Keywords:
Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Quasi-belief / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires
Publication year: 2017
URL:
https://www.bial.com/imagem/Grant_34014.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVES:
This study examined the degree to which paranormal believers, who profess ‘strong’ belief in the popular expression of a topic known as the primary item (e.g., There is such a thing as extrasensory perception), disagree with related items and/or the putative ‘cause’ of the topic, known as secondary items (e.g., Some people have an unexplained ability to predict the future). It was theorised that scoring differences between primary and secondary items might identify certain kinds of paranormal believer.
METHODS:
The Paranormal Belief Informedness Scale (PBIS) was constructed from extant PB scales - it consists of 10 primary items, & 10 secondary items. PBIS subscale scores were used to identify three major PB types in the sample (N = 343): ‘primary believers’ (who believe in all 10 primary items), ‘primary non-believers’ (who believe in none of the 10 primary items), and ‘mixed believers’ (who believe in only some primary items).
PRELIMINARY RESULTS:
We found significant response-rate differences between primary and secondary items across believer types, and across psi categories (i.e., ESP, PK, and life after death). For the full sample, it was shown that there is a significant relationship between PB and reality testing deficits (IPORT; Lenzenweger et al., 2001), but this relationship tended not to be significant across believer types. There was no evidence in the full sample, or in any believer type, that PB was correlated with depression as measured on the BDI-II (Beck et al., 1996).
CONCLUSION:
We suggest that such relationships are not necessarily linear but may only be monotonic, possibly involving ‘ceiling effects’; linear trends should not be assumed when dealing with predictors of paranormal belief.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Document type:
Final report
Keywords:
Depression / Informed belief / Paranormal belief / Primary belief / Quasi-belief / Reality testing / Sheep-goat effect

Final report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires

Final report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires

File016 - The psychology and parapsychology of spiritual emergency

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-016
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
016 - The psychology and parapsychology of spiritual emergency
Researcher(s): Lance Storm, Monika Goretzki
Institution(s): School of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Language: eng
Notes:
This project hasn't started yet
Author: Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Goretzki, M.
Keywords:
Imagery cultivation / Spiritual emergency / Sheep-goat effect / Spirituality / Parapsychology

DocumentFinal report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2016 Grants
Start date: 2017-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Duration: 2017-11 - 2019-04
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Research Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Author: Storm, L.
Keywords:
Imagery cultivation / Reactance / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062-01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Publication year: 2018
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND AND AIM
Using a picture-guessing task, and a shamanic-like journeying protocol that accords with the Imagery Cultivation Model, and following principles of reactance theory, this study sought insight into: (i) psi-enhancing effects of Imagery Cultivation (IC); and (ii) detrimental effects of reactance on psi hitting. Since those participants who express extreme disagreement with the reactance prime are found to shift against the position advocated in a threatening message, a measure of ‘discrepancy’ was introduced in order to ascertain the degree to which participants were affected by the reactance manipulation.
METHOD
Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: IC/Reactance; IC/Non-Reactance; Non-IC/Reactance; or Non-IC/Non-Reactance. Participants completed a precognition trial, success indicated by a direct hit (the future target picture was ranked #1 by the participant).
RESULTS
The IC treatment had a minor effect. Reactance group scored more hits than the Non-Reactance group (not sig.), largely attributable to ‘indecisives’ (mid-range paranormal believers). As expected, sheep scored higher than goats (not sig.); also as expected, ‘discrepants’ scored higher (marginally) than ‘non-discrepants’. Relationship between psi scoring and paranormal belief (RASGS) scores was positive and marginally significant.
CONCLUSION
Generally, psi effects were weak but mostly in the directions expected. Changes to the IC treatment may have reduced its effectiveness (comparisons of variations to the IC are advised). The reactance communication, which is supposed to be a threat to freedom, needs revision as it may be too persuasive. More precise measures of reactance treatment effects may be helpful.
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Document type:
Final report
Reference:
Storm, L. (2018). Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Reactance / Imagery cultivation / Imagination / Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect

Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool

Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool

DocumentImagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2016 Grants
Start date: 2017-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Duration: 2017-11 - 2019-04
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Research Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Author: Storm, L.
Keywords:
Imagery cultivation / Reactance / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062-02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Publication year: 2019
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
A psi-conducive altered state of consciousness can be induced through a shamanic-like journeying protocol in accordance with
the Imagery Cultivation (IC) model proposed by Storm and Rock (2009a). Storm and Rock (2009b) found that the protocol helped cultivate psi-related mental imagery. Alternatively, it is hypothesized that individuals who do notbelieve in psi or paranormal phenomena (i.e. ‘goats’) are prone to so-called reactance (Brehm 1966). Reactance is a motivational state aimed at restoring one’s sense of freedom when one feels threatened (Silvia 2005). A reactance treatment in the form of an opinionated communication (perceived as a threat to freedom) can raise reactance, which remains high if no outlet is provided. This induced effect can result in a noncompliant attitude and response, purely as a knee-jerk reaction to the threat. It is hypothesized that higher noncompliant behavior (e.g., psi-missing) can be induced in goats. Storm, Ertel, and Rock (2013) and Storm and Rock (2014) found support for the reactance hypothesis. IC and Reactance principles were used in the present study to manipulate psi in positive and negative directions, respectively. Four groups (total N = 240) were formed: (i) IC/Reactance, (ii) IC/No-Reactance; (iii) No-IC/Reactance, and (iv) No-IC/No-Reactance. The IC treatment produced a non-significant but slightly higher psi effect than the control condition. The reactance treatment had a stronger psychological effect on goats compared with sheep, indicated by a significantly greater discrepancy in goats over the opinionated communication. Significant reactance effects were not found, but specific effects were in the directions expected, with reversals of effects probably due to goats and ‘indecisives’ (mid-range scorers on paranormal belief) in the No-IC/Reactance group. A marginally significant sheep–goat effect was found. Replication attempts would be worthwhile that include refinements to the various IC conditions, and a less persuasive (more challenging) reactance communication.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Storm, L. (2019). Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 33(2), 193-208. doi: 10.31275/2019.1374
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Imagery cultivation / Paranormal belief / Reactance / Psi / Precognition / Sheep-goat effect