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BIAL Foundation
TI:"Differences in body image between people reporting near-death and spontaneous out-of-body-experiences"
Selection Description
Type Title Begin End
DocumentDifferences in body image between people reporting near-death and spontaneous out-of-body-experiences2006

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 25/2004
2004 Grants
Start date: 2005-01 - 2012-09
25 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-134
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 10/2004
134 - Investigating the multidimensional nature of body image, sensorial representation, and phenomenology in relation to different forms of out-of-body experience
Duration: 2005-06 - 2006-07
Craig Murray, Jezz Fox
Institution(s): Manchester University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
2 DVDs (one with web media coverage of the project and other containing an audio copy of BBC´s Radio 4 programme "Material World")
3 Articles
3 Conference proceedings/abstract
Language: eng
Related objects:
Author: Murray, C.
Secondary author(s):
Fox, J.
Number of reproductions:
Parapsychology / Out-of-body experience (OBE) / Body awareness

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-134.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 10/2004
Differences in body image between people reporting near-death and spontaneous out-of-body-experiences
Publication year: 2006
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
Many people report having had an ‘out-of-body’ experience (OBE) in which they felt as if their phenomenal self was separated from their physical body. Previous work has found OBE experients (OBErs) to score higher on measures of dissociation (e.g. Richards, 1991) and to differ from non-experients (non-OBErs) with regard to the perceptual experience of their body (Irwin, 2000). These findings have been interpreted as supporting a dissociational theory of the OBE. More recent work has suggested that an examination of other dimensions of body experience might reveal further aspects of such dissociational experience (Murray & Fox, 2005a, 2005b). In this work, OBErs have been found to score higher on a measure of body dissatisfaction, and lower on a measure of confidence in their physical self-presentation than non-OBErs. However, this prior research did not distinguish between those who had had a spontaneous OBE or an OBE as part of a near-death experience (NDE). The circumstances surrounding the spontaneous OBE and the NDE which includes an OBE appear to be very different; the former usually takes place when the person is on the verge of being awake or asleep, while the latter usually occurs when the person is placed in very stressful and fearful circumstances in which they perceive themselves to be near to death, are by some objective criteria near to death, or both. Given the very different contexts in which these forms of OBE occur, in the present study it was hypothesised that the causes of the spontaneous OBE and the OBE which takes place as part of an NDE have different causal psychological mechanisms. If this was supported by research findings, this would suggest at least two pathways to the OBE and the need for research which distinguishes between these. It was predicted that people reporting a prior spontaneous OBE would score more negatively on a variety of dimensions of body-related experience than people reporting an OBE as part as an NDE. Not all of the hypotheses were supported, but spontaneous OBErs were found to score significantly higher on measures of somatoform dissociation, body dissatisfaction and self-consciousness. The findings reported here support the theory that there are pre-existing differences in the body experience of NDErs and spontaneous OBErs.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
By permission
Murray, C.
Secondary author(s):
Fox, J.
Document type:
Number of reproductions:
Murray, C., & Fox, J. (2006). Differences in body image between people reporting near-death and spontaneous out-of-body-experiences. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 70.2, 98-109.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Out-of-body experience (OBE) / Near-death experience / Body satisfaction / Somatoform dissociation / Self-consciousness

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