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BIAL Foundation
TI:"Final report - A random number generator test of the Gradient of Shannon Entropy"
Selection Description
Type Title Begin End
DocumentFinal report - A random number generator test of the Gradient of Shannon Entropy2000

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1998
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 11/1998
1998 Grants
Start date: 1999-01 - 2005-12
11 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1998-034
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 4/1998
034 - A random number generator test of the Gradient of Shannon Entropy
Duration: 1999-01 - 2000-09
Edwin May, Richard Broughton, Robert Bourgeois, Laura Faith
Institution(s): Laboratories for Fundamental Research, Cognitive Science Laboratory, Palo Alto (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
The remaining documentation, specifically the progress report and the final report are included in the file 32/98 of the same main researcher
Language: eng
Related objects:
Author: May, E.
Secondary author(s):
Broughton, R., Bourgeois, R., Faith, L. V.
Number of reproductions:
Parapsychology / Anomalous cognition/experiences

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1998-034.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 4/1998
Final report - A random number generator test of the Gradient of Shannon Entropy
Publication year: 2000
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
The main expectation of this experiment was to explore the binary random number generator hit rate region above 60%. Given the strong and stable correlation of AC with the gradient of Shannon entropy and given the evidence that RNG results arise from AC rather than some force-like interaction, we thought that high gradient binary sequences would be “easier” to obtain in a psi-mediated selection task.
Fourteen subjects participated in formal trials in this study and contributed a total of approximately 4,600 individual trials of 200 binary bits each. We found that the selection of high entropy sequences was no more likely than for low entropy sequences. Thus the initial hypothesis was not confirmed.
However, this experiment indicated an exciting path for a future experiment. In the AC studies that do show a correlation with the gradient of Shannon entropy, the main feature is that feedback to the subject also has the gradient information embedded in the display. We noticed, too late for the experiment, that the feedback of even high gradient sequences was a display who’s visual gradient was always quite low. That is a “wiggly” line graph has low visual display gradient regardless of the gradient of the underlying driving sequence. If individuals make psi-like decisions on the bases of the gradient they experience, then we would expect the observed null result.
Accessibility: Document exists in file (located on the file 32/98)
By permission
Related objects:
Author: May, E.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
Indexed document:
Keywords: Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Random number generator / Shannon entropy

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