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TI:"Final report - Assessing the relationship between subjective validation, personality characteristics and beliefs in the paranormal "
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DocumentFinal report - Assessing the relationship between subjective validation, personality characteristics and beliefs in the paranormal 2003-012005-03

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2002
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 21/2002
Title:
2002 Grants
Start date: 2003-01 - 2009-11
Dimension/support:
21 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2002-070
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 4/2002
Title:
070 - Assessing the relationship between subjective validation, personality characteristics and beliefs in the paranormal
Duration: 2003-01 - 2005-03
Researcher(s):
David Marks, Robert Snowden, Nicola Gray, Lisa Evans, Anastasia Soureti
Institution(s): Department of Psychology, City University London (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Marks, D.
Secondary author(s):
Snowden, R., Gray, N., Evans, L., Soureti, A.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Personality factors

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2002-070.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 4/2002
Title:
Final report - Assessing the relationship between subjective validation, personality characteristics and beliefs in the paranormal
Publication year: 2003-01 - 2005-03
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa7002.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
Subjective validation occurs when a person maintains her/his prior beliefs when given clear and unambiguous evidence to the contrary (Marks & Kammann, 1980; Marks, 2000). This project focused upon the psychological characteristics of people who believe or do not believe in psi, independently of the issue of whether or not the phenomena are real. There were 120 participants who were interested in the paranormal and/or believed they were psychic (62% female, 38% male). To assess schizotypy, the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (Mason et al., 1995) was utilized. Fantasizing was measured using the Wilson-Barber Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings: Children’s Form (Myers, 1983). Vividness of visual imagery was measured using the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (Marks, 1973), and finally, we used the Transliminality Scale, Form B (Thalbourne, 1998). A Zener Card guessing task was designed to evaluate the participants’ tendency to subjectively validate their beliefs. The first block of 20 trials was arranged to enable participants to obtain double the chance rate (from 20 to 40%) of successful predictions. The second block of 20 trials was arranged to decrease the prediction rate. Subjective validation, assessed by measuring participants’ confidence level during block 2, had a correlation of .64 (p < .001) with psychic beliefs indicating that high subjective validators also have a strong tendency to proclaim personal psychic powers. A significant association also occurred between three of the schizotypy scales and beliefs in their psychic abilities:
unusual experiences (r =.43, p<.001), impulsive non-conformity (r=.41, p<.001), and cognitive disorganization (r =.38, p<.001). Significant correlations also occurred between psychic beliefs and fantasizing (r= .46, p<.001) and the VVIQ (r = .58, p <.001).
Discussion:
This study helped to identify the characteristics of people who strongly believe in personal psychic powers in spite of disconfirmation of their beliefs by actual physical events. Psychic believers have a strong tendency to subjectively validate and have personality characteristics that are linked to schizotypy, fantasizing, and vivid visual imagery. This is result which will not surprise many scientists and sceptics of the paranormal. However it is a result that should give pause to those who continue to claim the existence of powers and phenomena for which there is objective evidence.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Marks, D.
Secondary author(s):
Snowden, R., Gray, N., Evans, L., Soureti, A.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
2
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Personality factors

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