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BIAL Foundation
TI:"Nucleus accumbens microcircuit underlying D2-MSN-driven increase in motivation"
Selection Description
Type Title Begin End
DocumentNucleus accumbens microcircuit underlying D2-MSN-driven increase in motivation2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016
Location: BF-GMS
2016 Grants
Start date: 2017-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-030
Location: BF-GMS
030 - Exploring the neural basis of motivation
Duration: 2017-01 - 2020-03
Ana João Rodrigues, Nivaldo Vasconcelos, Carina Cunha, Bárbara Coimbra, Laura Silva, Patrícia Monteiro, Sónia Borges, Pedro Morgado
Institution(s): Life and Health Sciences Research Institute - ICVS, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Author: Rodrigues, A. J.
Secondary author(s):
Vasconcelos, N., Cunha, C., Coimbra, B., Silva, L., Monteiro, P., Borges, S., Morgado, P.
Number of reproductions:
Reward / Reinforcement / Mesolimbic system / Behavior / Psychophysiology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-030.03
Location: BF-GMS
Nucleus accumbens microcircuit underlying D2-MSN-driven increase in motivation
Publication year: 2018
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement. To answer this question, in this work we combined optogenetic modulation of D2-MSNs with in loco pharmacological delivery of specific neurotransmitter antagonists in rats. First, we showed that optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increases motivation in a progressive ratio (PR) task. We demonstrated that this behavioral effect relies on cholinergic-dependent modulation of dopaminergic signalling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) terminals, which requires D1R and D2R signalling in the NAc. D2-MSN optogenetic activation decreased ventral pallidum (VP) activity, reducing the inhibitory tone to VTA, leading to increased dopaminergic activity. Importantly, optogenetic activation of D2-MSN terminals in the VP was sufficient to recapitulate the motivation enhancement. In summary, our data suggests that optogenetic stimulation of NAc D2-MSNs indirectly modulates VTA dopaminergic activity, contributing for increased motivation. Moreover, both types of dopamine receptors signalling in the NAc are required in order to produce the positive behavioral effects.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Soares-Cunha, C.
Secondary author(s):
Coimbra, B., Domingues, A. V., Vasconcelos, N., Sousa, N., Rodrigues, A. J.
Document type:
Number of reproductions:
Soares-Cunha, C., Coimbra, B., Domingues, A. V., Vasconcelos, N., Sousa, N., & Rodrigues, A. J. (2018). Nucleus accumbens microcircuit underlying D2-MSN-driven increase in motivation. eNeuro, 5(2), e0386-18.
2-year Impact Factor: 3.544|2019
Impact factor notes: Impact factor computed since 2019
Times cited: 47|2024-02-09
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q2
Keywords: Basal ganglia / Medium spiny neurons / Motivation / Nucleus accumbens / Optogenetics / Reward

Nucleus accumbens microcircuit underlying D2-MSN-driven increase in motivation

Nucleus accumbens microcircuit underlying D2-MSN-driven increase in motivation