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BIAL Foundation
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cod:"PT/FB/BL-1996-026$"
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File026 - The gradient of Shannon’s entropy as an intrinsic target property1997-011998-03

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 8/1996
Title:
1996 Grants
Start date: 1997-01 - 2005-05
Dimension/support:
8 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996-026
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/1996
Title:
026 - The gradient of Shannon’s entropy as an intrinsic target property
Duration: 1997-01 - 1998-03
Researcher(s):
Edwin May, James Spottiswoode, Laura Faith, Joseph McMoneagle
Institution(s): The Laboratories for Fundamental Research, Cognitive Science Laboratory, Palo Alto (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
CD (Laboratories for Fundamental Research - CSL Target Pool, 300 images)
Language: eng
Author:
May, E.
Secondary author(s):
Spottiswoode, J., Faith, L. V., McMoneagle, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Anomalous cognition/experiences / Superior psi ability / Assessment tools

DocumentFinal report - The gradient of Shannon’s entropy as an intrinsic target property1998

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 8/1996
Title:
1996 Grants
Start date: 1997-01 - 2005-05
Dimension/support:
8 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996-026
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/1996
Title:
026 - The gradient of Shannon’s entropy as an intrinsic target property
Duration: 1997-01 - 1998-03
Researcher(s):
Edwin May, James Spottiswoode, Laura Faith, Joseph McMoneagle
Institution(s): The Laboratories for Fundamental Research, Cognitive Science Laboratory, Palo Alto (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
CD (Laboratories for Fundamental Research - CSL Target Pool, 300 images)
Language: eng
Author:
May, E.
Secondary author(s):
Spottiswoode, J., Faith, L. V., McMoneagle, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Anomalous cognition/experiences / Superior psi ability / Assessment tools

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996-026.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/1996
Title:
Final report - The gradient of Shannon’s entropy as an intrinsic target property
Publication year: 1998
URL:
http://www.bial.com/fotos/gca/1081782152bolsa2696.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
We invited five experienced receivers (i.e. experiment participants) to contribute 15 trials each. The target pool consisted of 300 carefully chosen digital images from a set of 20,000 pictures from the Corel Stock Photo Library of Professional Photographs. The trial protocol was controlled by email and feedback was provided on the World Wide Web. A figure of merit, was based upon a fuzzy-set encoding of the targets and responses.
The primary hypotheses were that a significant correlation would be seen between the figure of merit quality assessment and the gradient of Shannon’s entropy for the associated target, and that the correlation using the rating assessment would be consistent with earlier findings.
A secondary hypothesis was that the figure of merit quality would not correlate with the entropy of the associated target. All hypotheses were confirmed. The correlation of the figure of merit with the entropic gradient was significant (Spearman’s p = 0.212, df = 73, p = 0.034). The Spearman’s p for the correlation with the entropy was 0.042, df = 73, p = 0.361. The combined correlation using the rating assessment for the static targets in the previous studies led to a Spearman’s p = 0.161, df = 41, p = 0.152; where as in this study p = 0.183, df = 24, p = 0.188.
The consistency with our earlier rating correlation and the robustness with the figure of merit assessment are surprising given that there was little evidence overall in the study for AC as measured by the rank-order method (i.e. mean rank = 2.93, ES = -0.005, z = -0.041, and p = 0.484).
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
May, E.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
2
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Anomalous cognition

Novo ficheiro

Novo ficheiro

DocumentGradient of Shannon entropy and the quality of anomalous cognition1998

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 8/1996
Title:
1996 Grants
Start date: 1997-01 - 2005-05
Dimension/support:
8 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996-026
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/1996
Title:
026 - The gradient of Shannon’s entropy as an intrinsic target property
Duration: 1997-01 - 1998-03
Researcher(s):
Edwin May, James Spottiswoode, Laura Faith, Joseph McMoneagle
Institution(s): The Laboratories for Fundamental Research, Cognitive Science Laboratory, Palo Alto (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
CD (Laboratories for Fundamental Research - CSL Target Pool, 300 images)
Language: eng
Author:
May, E.
Secondary author(s):
Spottiswoode, J., Faith, L. V., McMoneagle, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Anomalous cognition/experiences / Superior psi ability / Assessment tools

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996-026.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/1996
Title:
Gradient of Shannon entropy and the quality of anomalous cognition
Publication year: 1998
URL:
http://www.bial.com/pt/fundacao_bial.11/simposios.19/edicoes_anteriores.75/2%C2%BA_simposio.a108.html
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
May, E.
Secondary author(s):
Spottiswoode, J.
Document type:
Conference paper
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
May, E., & Spottiswoode, J. (1998). Gradient of Shannon entropy and the quality of anomalous cognition. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium of Fundação Bial (pp. 229-235). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Anomalous cognition / Entropy

Novo ficheiro

Novo ficheiro

DocumentThe correlation of the gradient of Shannon entropy and anomalous cognition: Toward an AC sensory system2000

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 8/1996
Title:
1996 Grants
Start date: 1997-01 - 2005-05
Dimension/support:
8 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996-026
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/1996
Title:
026 - The gradient of Shannon’s entropy as an intrinsic target property
Duration: 1997-01 - 1998-03
Researcher(s):
Edwin May, James Spottiswoode, Laura Faith, Joseph McMoneagle
Institution(s): The Laboratories for Fundamental Research, Cognitive Science Laboratory, Palo Alto (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
CD (Laboratories for Fundamental Research - CSL Target Pool, 300 images)
Language: eng
Author:
May, E.
Secondary author(s):
Spottiswoode, J., Faith, L. V., McMoneagle, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Anomalous cognition/experiences / Superior psi ability / Assessment tools

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-1996-026.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/1996
Title:
The correlation of the gradient of Shannon entropy and anomalous cognition: Toward an AC sensory system
Publication year: 2000
URL:
http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_14_1_may.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
In this study, we hoped to replicate earlier findings that have demonstrated strong evidence for anomalous cognition (AC), as well as a significant correlation between the quality of the AC with the gradient of Shannon entropy, but not with the entropy itself. We created a new target pool and a more sensitive analytical system compared with those of earlier studies. We then invited five experienced receivers (i.e., experiment participants) to contribute 15 trials each. In addition to the usual rank-order analysis, two other methods were used to assess the quality of the AC. The first of these was a 0 to 7 rating scale that has been used in the earlier studies. The second, a figure of merit, was based on a fuzzy-set encoding of the targets and responses. The primary hypotheses were (a) that a significant correlation would be seen between the figure of merit quality assessment and the gradient of Shannon entropy for the associated target and (b) that the correlation using the rating assessment would be consistent with earlier findings. A secondary hypothesis was that the figure of merit quality would not correlate with the entropy of the associated target. All hypotheses were confirmed. Our results are part of the growing evidence that AC is mediated through a sensory channel.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
May, E.
Secondary author(s):
Spottiswoode, J., Faith, L. V.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
May, E., Spottiswoode, J., & Faith, L. V. (2000). The correlation of the gradient of Shannon entropy and anomalous cognition: Toward an AC sensory system. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 14(1), 53-72.
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Anomalous cognition / Pattern analysis / Entropy gradient

The correlation of the gradient of Shannon entropy and anomalous cognition: Toward an AC sensory system

The correlation of the gradient of Shannon entropy and anomalous cognition: Toward an AC sensory system