|Reference code: ||PT/FB/BL-2000-015.10|
|Location: ||Arquivo PCA - Pasta 3/2000|
|Investigation of telepathy in animals and humans|
|Publication year: ||2004|
Many people claim to have known who was calling before they picked up the telephone, or to have thought about someone for no apparent reason, who then called. We carried out a series of experiments to test
whether or not people really could tell who was telephoning. Each participant had 4 potential callers, and when the telephone rang had to guess who was calling before the other person spoke. By chance the
success rate would have been 25%. In a total of 571 trials, involving 63 participants, the overall success rate was 40%, with 95% confidence limits from 36% to 45%. This effect was hugely significant statistically (p = 4 x 10-16). We obtained similar positive effects when the calls were made at randomly chosen times, and when the calls were made at fixed times known to the subject in advance.
In further series of tests, participants were filmed on time-coded videotape throughout the experimental period. When the telephone began ringing, the participants said to the camera whom they thought the caller was, and in many cases also said how confident they felt in their guesses. The videotapes were evaluated “blind” by a third party. The callers were usually several miles away, and in some cases thousands of miles away. As before, by guessing at random there was a 25% chance of success. We worked with four participants. In a total of 271 trials, there were 122 (45%) correct guesses (p=1 x 10-12). The 95% confidence limits of this success rate were from 39% to 51%.
This research has been replicated at the University Of Cape Town, South Africa, with similar results. It has also been replicated for a television programme in England, with a 50% success rate. A video of this test will
be available for viewing.
We also investigated the telepathic anticipation of e-mails, using a similar experimental design. Each participant had four potential e-mailers, and knew that an e-mail would be sent by one of these four at a fixed time. A minute before this time, the participant had to guess who would be sending the e-mail, and send an e-mail to the experimenter stating this guess. As in the telephone telepathy tests, there was an expectation of 25% success by chance. In 245 trials the average success rate was 45% (p= 4 x 10-12). We have recently developed an online version of this experiment.
|Accessibility: ||Document does not exist in file|
|Secondary author(s): |
|Smart, P., Morgana, A., Barber, K.|
|Document type: |
|Number of reproductions: |
|Sheldrake, R., Smart, P., Morgana, A., & Barber, K. (2004). Investigation of telepathy in animals and humans. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 5th Symposium of Fundação Bial (pp. 293-294). Porto: Fundação Bial.|
|Indexed document: ||No|
|Keywords: ||Parapsychology / Telepathy / Telephone calls|
Investigation of telepathy in animals and humans