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File077 - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP2001-012002-12

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 13/2000
Title:
2000 Grants
Start date: 2001-01 - 2014-02
Dimension/support:
13 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
077 - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP
Duration: 2001-01 - 2002-12
Researcher(s):
Paul Stevens
Institution(s): The University of Edinburgh (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Telepathy / Psychokinesis (PK) / Ganzfeld studies / Magnetic field

DocumentFinal report - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP2002

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 13/2000
Title:
2000 Grants
Start date: 2001-01 - 2014-02
Dimension/support:
13 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
077 - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP
Duration: 2001-01 - 2002-12
Researcher(s):
Paul Stevens
Institution(s): The University of Edinburgh (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Telepathy / Psychokinesis (PK) / Ganzfeld studies / Magnetic field

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
Final report - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP
Publication year: 2002
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa7700.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
This study tested a proposed model wherein a receiver in ganzfeld protocol would show a mentation-reinforcing skin-conductance change when a sender decided their mentation was target-relevant. This would be seen whether the mentation heard by the sender was True-Feedback (TF) or False-Feedback (FF) i.e. the sender's decision initiated the skin-conductance change.
Based on the receiver's ranking of target video clip, there was no evidence of telepathy with only 24 direct hits (&pi;<sub>o</sub> = 0.49, p=0.33). However, the receiver did show a skin-conductance response when the sender thought the mentation was relevant to the target. The apparent discrepancy highlights the low correlation (rho=-0.11) between the target-relevance of the receiver's mentation and the final rank given to the target, implying that there are limitations to the standard ganzfeld protocol for producing reliable telepathy effects.
Correlations were found between variance of the local magnetic field and telepathy success (Overall: Spearman r=+0.122, p=0.12; FF: r=+0.194, p=0.09; TF: r=-0.239, p=0.05). This was in the predicted direction overall and for the FF, but reversed for TF, possibly implying that different primary processes operate in each condition (negative correlations are more usually observed in micro-PK studies). A predicted positive correlation with magnetic field intensity was also found (Overall: r=-0.255, p=0.08; FF: r=-0.300, p=0.02; TF: r=-0.209, p=0.08). 42 of the receivers were also measured to see their skin-conductance responses to an applied magnetic field.
Although overall they showed the expected slight increase in the variance of skin conductance, there were no significant correlations between this and telepathy success.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
2
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Psi

Relatório final - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP

Relatório final - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP

DocumentCan we differentiate between ESP and Imagination?2002

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 13/2000
Title:
2000 Grants
Start date: 2001-01 - 2014-02
Dimension/support:
13 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
077 - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP
Duration: 2001-01 - 2002-12
Researcher(s):
Paul Stevens
Institution(s): The University of Edinburgh (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Telepathy / Psychokinesis (PK) / Ganzfeld studies / Magnetic field

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
Can we differentiate between ESP and Imagination?
Publication year: 2002
URL:
http://www.spr.ac.uk/psedsite/JSPRabstracts.php3?year=2002
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
One enduring problem in extrasensory perception (ESP) research lies in determining which aspects of a percipient's mentation might relate to the target, and which are not relevant. Perhaps this is a false dichotomy and ESP is instead "imagination that relates to the target", an extension of a continuous process wherein our internal state is perturbed by a multitude of external forces but one where we have been able to extract useful information from those perturbations. These perturbations will not be strong else they would be directly perceived, but instead enter into conscious awareness as subtle alterations to 'normal' thought processes. This may manifest as a sense of unease or awareness of difference, or, as occurs with weak or indirect sensory information, in a symbolic form. ESP can then be envisioned not as a single "sense" but instead as a symbolic unification of a stream of weak and indirect information from a variety of sources.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Stevens, P. (2002). Can we differentiate between ESP and Imagination? Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 66.4, 239-246.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Imagination

DocumentExperimental evaluation of a feedback-reinforcement model for dyadic ESP2004

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 13/2000
Title:
2000 Grants
Start date: 2001-01 - 2014-02
Dimension/support:
13 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
077 - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP
Duration: 2001-01 - 2002-12
Researcher(s):
Paul Stevens
Institution(s): The University of Edinburgh (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Telepathy / Psychokinesis (PK) / Ganzfeld studies / Magnetic field

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
Experimental evaluation of a feedback-reinforcement model for dyadic ESP
Publication year: 2004
URL:
http://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=149&SID=Z1T1li1SW9lnlKPlMpq&page=1&doc=1
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
A model for certain instances of dyadic extrasensory perception (ESP) is proposed wherein a 'psi stimulus' is generated by a sender in response to real-time feedback of target-relevant receiver mentation. This stimulus need act only to reinforce current mentation by momentarily changing physiological arousal, reducing the need for complex information transfer and highlighting the idea that psi may be a blanket term for a variety of information channels utilising different mechanisms rather than a unitary phenomenon. Experimental evaluation of the model involved two extensions to the standard Ganzfeld design: (1) in one condition the sender received false feedback of receiver mentation; (2) receiver skin-conductance was recorded during mentation. No evidence of ESP was found based on target-rank (pi = 0.49) but the predicted skinconductance response to target relevant mentation was observed, with significantly higher arousal for relevant mentation than in baseline periods (p=0.04, 1-t). Arousal was increased in both conditions,
indicating a response to the sender's perception rather than directly to target relevant mentation. The True Feedback condition showed a surprising negative correlation with magnetic variance (p=0.06 but opposite to prediction), and only the False Feedback condition showed the predicted negative correlation with magnetic field intensity (p=0.002, 1-t).
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Stevens, P. (2004). Experimental evaluation of a feedback-reinforcement model for dyadic ESP. Journal of Parapsychology, 68(1), 65-92.
2-year Impact Factor: 0.419|2004
Times cited: 2|2022-05-18
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q4
Keywords: Parapsychology / Ganzfeld design / Skin conductance response (SCR) / Magnetic field

DocumentAre our assumptions more anomalous than the phenomena?2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 13/2000
Title:
2000 Grants
Start date: 2001-01 - 2014-02
Dimension/support:
13 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
077 - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP
Duration: 2001-01 - 2002-12
Researcher(s):
Paul Stevens
Institution(s): The University of Edinburgh (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Telepathy / Psychokinesis (PK) / Ganzfeld studies / Magnetic field

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
Are our assumptions more anomalous than the phenomena?
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://books.google.pt/books?id=nck56hlSlBAC&pg=PA50&lpg=PA50&dq=%22Are+our+assumptions+more+anomalous+than+the+phenomena?%22&source=bl&ots=0AltWeVWIc&sig=_7qZg6kE8U7DS9DCQCFvNEvdpjo&hl=pt-PT&sa=X&ei=fNLSUaLcHIGu7AbN-YGoDA&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Are%20our%20assumptions%20more%20anomalous%20than%20the%20phenomena%3F%22&f=false
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
One major criticism of parapsychology is that it lacks accepted theoretical models, and that those it does have tend to make use of the more esoteric and speculative areas of physics. Part of the reason for the widespread scepticism and dearth of viable theories is, I think, due to the perceived properties of psi effects rather than properties that are necessarily real. Given our current knowledge, it is difficult if not impossible to model psi effects as the claimed properties rarely appear to be consistent with theory and observation in other areas of science. But are the claims often made for psi phenomena really justified? Here, I look at three of the more common claims made by parapsychologists and critically assess the assumptions that led to them. I will try to show how the different assumptions we make about psi effects can radically alter the physical requirements of any potential mechanisms and suggest alternative perspectives on some parapsychological phenomena.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Document type:
Book chapter
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Stevens, P. (2009). Are our assumptions more anomalous than the phenomena? In M. Smith (Ed.), Anomalous experiences: Essays from parapsychological and psychological perspectives (pp. 50-60). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Assumptions

DocumentPsi reinforcement of stochastic mentation: The PRiSM model of dyadic ESP2002

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 13/2000
Title:
2000 Grants
Start date: 2001-01 - 2014-02
Dimension/support:
13 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
077 - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP
Duration: 2001-01 - 2002-12
Researcher(s):
Paul Stevens
Institution(s): The University of Edinburgh (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Telepathy / Psychokinesis (PK) / Ganzfeld studies / Magnetic field

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077.05
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation: The PRiSM model of dyadic ESP
Publication year: 2002
URL:
http://www.bial.com/pt/fundacao_bial.11/simposios.19/edicoes_anteriores.75/4%C2%BA_simposio.a110.html
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Stevens, P. (2002). Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation: The PRiSM model of dyadic ESP. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 4th Symposium of Fundação Bial (p. 453). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP)

Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation: The PRiSM model of dyadic ESP

Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation: The PRiSM model of dyadic ESP

DocumentPsi reinforcement of stochastic mentation: The PRiSM model of dyadic ESP2004

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 13/2000
Title:
2000 Grants
Start date: 2001-01 - 2014-02
Dimension/support:
13 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
077 - Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation - the PRiSM model of dyadic ESP
Duration: 2001-01 - 2002-12
Researcher(s):
Paul Stevens
Institution(s): The University of Edinburgh (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Telepathy / Psychokinesis (PK) / Ganzfeld studies / Magnetic field

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2000-077.06
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2000
Title:
Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation: The PRiSM model of dyadic ESP
Publication year: 2004
URL:
http://www.bial.com/pt/fundacao_bial.11/simposios.19/edicoes_anteriores.75/5%C2%BA_simposio.a111.html
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
The Ganzfeld ESP protocol has become one of the most common experimental procedures used in parapsychological research, despite inconsistencies in different meta-analysis questioning its reliability. Such inconsistencies may simply suggest a need to standardise the procedure but could also be due to our lack of theoretical understanding of how ESP might operate. Although practically nothing is known about how any information might be transferred, several potential mechanisms are generally considered to have been ruled out by theoretical considerations of the bandwidth required to transmit the complex information
required to identify the target. Such ‘mental radio’ models do have many problems - the low emissive capabilities of bio-systems, apparent ESP over large distances and degradation by noise - and this is generally taken to mean that ESP must not be a signal in classical terms. However, an alternative suggestion may be that no target-specific information is transferred at all. Instead, ‘signaling’ of a much simpler kind may play a vital role.
This study presented a model that could apply to cases of anomalous information transfer where there is some form of sensory feedback from receiver to sender. It proposes that a ‘psi stimulus’ is generated by a
sender in response to real-time feedback of target-relevant receiver mentation, this stimulus acting to reinforce current mentation by momentarily changing physiological arousal and so reducing the need for complex information transfer. Experimental evaluation of the model involved two extensions to the standard Ganzfeld ESP design: (1) in one condition the sender received false feedback of receiver mentation; (2) receiver skinconductance was recorded during mentation. No evidence of ESP was found based on target-rank (pi = 0.49) but the predicted skin-conductance response to target-relevant mentation was observed, with significantly higher arousal for relevant mentation than in baseline periods (p=0.04, 1-t). Arousal was increased in both conditions, indicating that the receiver’s physiological response related to the sender’s reactions and not directly to the target material. This could suggest that the process involved is more akin to micro/bioPK, with the sender influencing the receiver’s arousal at times of relevant mentation.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Stevens, P.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Stevens, P. (2004). Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation: The PRiSM model of dyadic ESP. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 5th Symposium of Fundação Bial (pp. 312-313). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP)

Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation: The PRiSM model of dyadic ESP

Psi reinforcement of stochastic mentation: The PRiSM model of dyadic ESP