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File163 - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects2005-012006-04

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 25/2004
Title:
2004 Grants
Start date: 2005-01 - 2012-09
Dimension/support:
25 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
163 - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects
Duration: 2005-01 - 2006-04
Researcher(s):
Martijn Arns, Wytze van der Zwaag, Erica Heesen, Rien Breteler
Institution(s): Brain Resource Company B.V., Nijmegen (The Netherlands)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report (2 copies)
Article
Master's thesis
Language: eng
Author:
Arns, M.
Secondary author(s):
Van der Zwaag, W., Heesen, E., Breteler, R.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Learning

DocumentFinal report - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects2006

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 25/2004
Title:
2004 Grants
Start date: 2005-01 - 2012-09
Dimension/support:
25 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
163 - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects
Duration: 2005-01 - 2006-04
Researcher(s):
Martijn Arns, Wytze van der Zwaag, Erica Heesen, Rien Breteler
Institution(s): Brain Resource Company B.V., Nijmegen (The Netherlands)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report (2 copies)
Article
Master's thesis
Language: eng
Author:
Arns, M.
Secondary author(s):
Van der Zwaag, W., Heesen, E., Breteler, R.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Learning

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
Final report - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects
Publication year: 2006
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa16304_03122012.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
The results show that GSR biofeedback, as compared to SCP Neurofeedback, is easier to learn which confirms the findings from Nagai et al. (2004). Furthermore, SCP-trained subjects show the biggest SCP differentiation as compared to GSR-trained people and GSRtrained people show the biggest GSR differentiation as compared to the SCP trained, which confirms that the primary learning effect can be found in the modality being trained; e.g. if subjects are trained on their SCP, then the differentiation of the SCP is also biggest and increases with training time. No clear differentiation effects were found for the ‘other’ modality suggesting that training on GSR does not directly affect or modulate SCP’s and vice versa as measured with this differentiation method.
No consistent differences were found in the pre- and post QEEG’s for both groups. This is in agreement with the study from Kotchouby et al. (1999) who also failed to report consistent changes in the QEEG after SCP Neurofeedback.
The individual correlation analysis revealed no correlations for the GSR Biofeedback group. However, for the SCP feedback group significant correlations were found for both the positivity and negativity conditions. The significant correlations seem to suggest that successful SCP trials are associated with increased arousal. These correlations are probably not related to a functional relation between SCP regulation and GSR regulation – which was the hypothesis to be investigated in this study. In such a case SCP positivity would be related to increased arousal, whereas SCP negativity would be related to decreased arousal or vice versa. Our results suggest increased GSR arousal being related to both training conditions, suggesting a non-specific arousal effect related to degree of success.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Arns, M.
Secondary author(s):
Heesen, E., Spronk, D., Kleinnijenhuis, M., Van Luijtelaar, G.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
1
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Psychophysiology / Cognition / Biofeedback / Neurofeedback

Final report - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects

Final report - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects

DocumentDiscrete-Trial SCP and GSR training and the interrelationship between central and peripheral arousal2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 25/2004
Title:
2004 Grants
Start date: 2005-01 - 2012-09
Dimension/support:
25 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
163 - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects
Duration: 2005-01 - 2006-04
Researcher(s):
Martijn Arns, Wytze van der Zwaag, Erica Heesen, Rien Breteler
Institution(s): Brain Resource Company B.V., Nijmegen (The Netherlands)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report (2 copies)
Article
Master's thesis
Language: eng
Author:
Arns, M.
Secondary author(s):
Van der Zwaag, W., Heesen, E., Breteler, R.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Learning

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
Discrete-Trial SCP and GSR training and the interrelationship between central and peripheral arousal
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10874208.2010.501501#.UelismxdYq4
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
INTRODUCTION:
Slow Cortical Potential (SCP) neurofeedback and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) biofeedback training were used to investigate self-regulatory control over central and peripheral arousal processes in two groups of healthy participants.
METHOD:
One group completed the SCP neurofeedback training procedure; the other group performed the GSR biofeedback procedure. Both groups underwent treatment while the other variable was passively recorded. The participants were instructed to either increase (Up trials) or decrease (Down trials) arousal. Twenty sessions were completed by each of the 18 participants over an 8-week period.
RESULTS:
Participants in each group performed better on the variable they were trained on. In the GSR group, a significant increase in performance over blocks was obtained for both trial types (Up and Down). In the SCP group a better performance on the Down trials was obtained. When comparing performance of both trial types, the SCP-trained participants showed a marginal increase and the GSR-trained participants a significant increase over time preliminary-training.
CONCLUSION:
Overall, the results showed that GSR regulation is easier to learn than SCP training with neurofeedback, that both variables can be trained in a bidirectional design, and that the SCP training subjects were predominantly able to learn performance at the Down trials. Preliminary results from the cross-correlations are inconsistent over trial types, trained parameters, and participants. However, the general trend shows a more positive correlation at the end of training compared to the start of training. Cross-correlation analysis suggests that this training encourages positive correlation between the SCP and GSR. Future research directions should be aimed at improving motivational conditions, implementing contingent reward principles, and controlling confounding variables.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Spronk, D.
Secondary author(s):
Kleinnijenhuis, M., Luijtelaar, G., Arns, M.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Spronk, D., Kleinnijenhuis, M., Luijtelaar, G., & Arns, M. (2010). Discrete-Trial SCP and GSR training and the interrelationship between central and peripheral arousal. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(3), 217-228. doi: 10.1080/10874208.2010.501501
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback / Galvanic skin response (GSR) / Galvanic skin response biofeedback / Neurofeedback / Operant conditioning / Slow cortical potentials

DocumentComparison of discrete-trial based SMR and SCP training and the interrelationship between SCP and SMR networks: Implications for brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback2007

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 25/2004
Title:
2004 Grants
Start date: 2005-01 - 2012-09
Dimension/support:
25 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
163 - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects
Duration: 2005-01 - 2006-04
Researcher(s):
Martijn Arns, Wytze van der Zwaag, Erica Heesen, Rien Breteler
Institution(s): Brain Resource Company B.V., Nijmegen (The Netherlands)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report (2 copies)
Article
Master's thesis
Language: eng
Author:
Arns, M.
Secondary author(s):
Van der Zwaag, W., Heesen, E., Breteler, R.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Learning

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
Comparison of discrete-trial based SMR and SCP training and the interrelationship between SCP and SMR networks: Implications for brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback
Publication year: 2007
URL:
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10874200802162808?journalCode=wneu20#.UelbdWxdYq4
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
Operant conditioning of one's slow cortical potential (SCP) or sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) can be used to control epilepsy or to manipulate external devices, as applied in BCI (Brain-Computer Interface). A commonly accepted view that both SCP and SMR are reflections of central arousal suggests a functional relationship between SCP and SMR networks.
METHOD:
The operant conditioning of SCP or SMR was tested with a single electroencephalographic (EEG) channel wireless biofeedback system. A series of trainings taught 19 participants to control SCP or SMR over vertex during 20 neurofeedback sessions. Each session consisted of 96 trials to decrease cortical arousal (SCP positivity/SMR enhancement) and 64 trials to increase cortical arousal (SCP negativity/SMR suppression). In each trial, participants were required to exceed an individual threshold level of the feedback parameter relative to a 500-msec prefeedback baseline and to hold this level for 2 sec (SCP) or 0.5 sec (SMR) to obtain reinforcement.
RESULTS:
Ten of the 19 participants achieved control over their EEG. In the SCP-trained group, 4 of 9 participants increased the differentiation between their SCP responses on positivity-required versus negativity-required trials. SMR suppression and enhancement was achieved by 3 and 4 of the 10 SMR-trained participants. The SMR-trained responders did not show differentiation in their SMR responses, but did show a differentiation in their SCP response—while trained on SMR.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results showed the proposed method was successful to teach control of SCP or SMR. Bidirectional control was very difficult to achieve with the present SMR training procedure. SCP positivity and SMR enhancement were easier to learn. The results suggest that SMR training modulates excitability thresholds in the striatal-thalamocortical motor loop, whereas changes in the loop's excitability thresholds by SCP training do not affect the thalamic bursting that underlies the SMR.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Kleinnijenhuis, M.
Secondary author(s):
Arns, M., Spronk, D., Breteler, R.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Kleinnijenhuis, M., Arns, M., Spronk, D., & Breteler, R. (2007). Comparison of discrete-trial based SMR and SCP training and the interrelationship between SCP and SMR networks: Implications for brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(4), 19-35. doi: 10.1080/10874200802162808
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) / Discrete training / Epilepsy / Neurofeedback / Sensorimotor rhythm / Slow cortical potentials

Comparison of discrete-trial based SMR and SCP training and the interrelationship between SCP and SMR networks: Implications for brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback

Comparison of discrete-trial based SMR and SCP training and the interrelationship between SCP and SMR networks: Implications for brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback

DocumentComparison of SMR and SCP training employing newly developed discrete-trial based biofeedback system2007

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 25/2004
Title:
2004 Grants
Start date: 2005-01 - 2012-09
Dimension/support:
25 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
163 - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects
Duration: 2005-01 - 2006-04
Researcher(s):
Martijn Arns, Wytze van der Zwaag, Erica Heesen, Rien Breteler
Institution(s): Brain Resource Company B.V., Nijmegen (The Netherlands)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report (2 copies)
Article
Master's thesis
Language: eng
Author:
Arns, M.
Secondary author(s):
Van der Zwaag, W., Heesen, E., Breteler, R.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Learning

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
Comparison of SMR and SCP training employing newly developed discrete-trial based biofeedback system
Publication year: 2007
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
Operant conditioning of one’s slow cortical potential (SCP) or sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) can be used to control epilepsy or to manipulate external devices, as applied in BCI (Brain-Computer Interface). To be practical, a BCI-system should use as less channels as possible. For this purpose, a wireless biofeedback system was developed that allows feedback of a single EEG-channel in discrete trials. The commonly accepted view that both the SCP and SMR are a reflection of central arousal suggests a functional
relationship between SCP and SMR networks.
METHODS:
A training was performed that aimed to teach 19 participants to control their SCP (n=9) or SMR (n=10) over vertex. Participants received 20 neurofeedback sessions, each comprising of 96 trials in which they had to decrease cortical arousal (SCP positivity/SMR enhancement) and 64 trials in which they had to increase cortical arousal (SCP negativity/SMR suppression). In a trial, participants were required to exceed an individual threshold level of the feedback parameter relative to a 500 ms pre-feedback baseline and hold this level for 2 seconds (SCP) or 0.5 seconds (SMR) in order to obtain reinforcement.
RESULTS:
Overall, 10 of the total of 19 participants achieved control over their EEG. In the SCP-trained group, 4 out of 9 participants were able to increase the differentiation between their SCP responses on positivityrequired vs. negativity-required trials over the course of the experiment. Improvements in control over the SMR in suppression-required and enhancement-required trials were acquired by respectively 3 and 4 of the 10 SMR-trained participants. These SMR-trained responders did not show differentiation between their
SMR responses in enhancement-required vs. suppression-required trials. Interestingly, the SMR responders did show a differentiation in their SCP response while trained on SMR.
CONCLUSIONS:
It can be concluded from this experiment that, with the proposed method, a number of the participants are able to acquire control over their SCP or SMR. For SMR, however, bidirectional control is very difficult to achieve with the present training procedure. Furthermore, SCP positivity and SMR enhancement are easier to learn compared to their counterparts. The observed SCP differentiation while training SMR and absence of equivalent SMR changes while training SCP suggest that SMR training modulates the central arousal system, whereas SCP training invokes local effects.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Kleinnijenhuis, M.
Document type:
Master's thesis
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Kleinnijenhuis, M. (2007). Comparison of SMR and SCP training employing newly developed discrete-trial based biofeedback system (Unpublished master´s thesis). Netherlands: Radboud University Nijmegen.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) / Epilepsy / Slow cortical potentials / Sensorimotor rhythm / Neurofeedback / Discrete training

Comparison of SMR and SCP training employing newly developed discrete-trial based biofeedback system

Comparison of SMR and SCP training employing newly developed discrete-trial based biofeedback system

DocumentEffects of different Biofeedback training procedures on quantitative Electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects2004

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 25/2004
Title:
2004 Grants
Start date: 2005-01 - 2012-09
Dimension/support:
25 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
163 - Effects of different biofeedback training procedures on quantitative electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects
Duration: 2005-01 - 2006-04
Researcher(s):
Martijn Arns, Wytze van der Zwaag, Erica Heesen, Rien Breteler
Institution(s): Brain Resource Company B.V., Nijmegen (The Netherlands)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report (2 copies)
Article
Master's thesis
Language: eng
Author:
Arns, M.
Secondary author(s):
Van der Zwaag, W., Heesen, E., Breteler, R.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Learning

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2004-163.05
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2004
Title:
Effects of different Biofeedback training procedures on quantitative Electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects
Publication year: 2004
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/1178809516livroactas.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVES:
Both GSR and SCP have been associated with epilepsy. These measures may be different expressions of a single underlying neurophysiological (arousal) system. Learning curves of volitional control of GSR and SCP after feedback will be investigated, and compared to changes in simultaneously measured spontaneous SCP
and GSR. Effects of training on QEEG profiles and neuropsychological functioning will be assessed.
METHODS:
Eight men and 11 women were randomly assigned to either a GSR biofeedback condition or an SCP neurofeedback condition. GSR and SCP were measured in both conditions. Each subject participated in 24 sessions of four runs, consisting of 40 trials each, in which pseudorandomly increases and decreases in SCP or GSR were trained.
RESULTS:
For the GSR feedback a polynomial curve was found to fit the data best. An increase in arousal (increase in GSR) appeared to be learned slightly better than a decrease. Four out of 10 subjects showed evidence of discrete self-regulation of their GSR. For the SCP feedback, preliminary analyses suggest a flat linear learning
curve (regression coefficient r=0.033). Again, an increase in arousal (cortical negativity) appeared to be learned slightly better than a decrease. Three out of 9 subjects showed evidence of discrete selfregulation
of their SCP´s.
CONCLUSIONS:
Interrelationships of GSR and SCP grand averages over sessions and changes from pre to post QEEG and neuropsychology will be discussed.
The polynomial curve for the GSR group suggests GSR was easier to learn, further supported by the individual results. Future studies should focus on these effects in epilepsy patients.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Arns, M.
Secondary author(s):
Van der Zwaag, W., Heesen, E., Breteler, R.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Arns, M., Van der Zwaag, W., Heesen, E., & Breteler, R. (2004). Effects of different Biofeedback training procedures on quantitative Electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 6th Symposium of Fundação Bial (pp. 274-275). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Psychophysiology / Cognition / Galvanic skin response biofeedback / Slow cortical potentials neurofeedback

Effects of different Biofeedback training procedures on quantitative Electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects

Effects of different Biofeedback training procedures on quantitative Electroencephalographic parameters of healthy subjects