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File044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing2007-102010-01

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

DocumentFinal report - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Final report - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa44-06_03012014.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
Brain functional connectivity (FC) (computed via EEG LORETA cortical source modeling) in experienced meditators (13 Tibetan Buddhists, 15 QiGong, 14 Sahaja Yoga, 14 Ananda Marga Yoga, 15 Zen) was lower (no increases at all!) during deep meditation than during rest in all EEG frequencies (1.5 – 45 Hz) and all 5 meditation traditions. Into and out of meditation showed different FC topography. These results suggest that during meditation interaction between self process functions is minimized, and constraints on the self process by other processes is minimized, resulting in experienced non-involvement, detachment and letting go, and all oneness and dissolution of ego borders. - FC during breath counting (as used in meditation, but given as task without referring to meditation) in meditation-naïve participants showed reduced FC in breath counting compared to rest, similar to the findings in experienced meditators. - During rest, EEG LORETA cortical source activity in Qigong meditators versus controls showed inhibition of frontal appraisal areas (increased EEG delta), while posterior areas (detection / integration of internal /external sensory information) were activated (decreased EEG delta). Apparently, neuroplasticity effects of long-term meditation practice (increased awareness and detachment) are carried over into non-meditating states. - Qigong meditators doing Thinking of Nothing (TN) and Qigong (QG) had stronger EEG alpha-2 frequency during QG than TN in a single right parietal cluster of LORETA sources, and stronger beta-1 frequency in TN than QG in a single left prefrontal cluster, suggesting self-reference, attention, input-centered processing in QG, and control-centered processing in TN.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Document type:
Final report
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Psychophysiology / Meditation / Functional brain electrical tomography LORETA / Functional intracortical electrical connectivity / Breath counting

Final report - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing

Final report - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing

DocumentMeditators and non-meditators: EEG source imaging during resting2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Meditators and non-meditators: EEG source imaging during resting
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10548-009-0107-4
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Many meditation exercises aim at increased awareness of ongoing experiences through sustained attention and at detachment, i.e., non-engaging observation of these ongoing experiences by the intent not to analyze, judge or expect anything. Long-term meditation practice is believed to generalize the ability of increased awareness and greater detachment into everyday life. We hypothesized that neuroplasticity effects of meditation (correlates of increased awareness and detachment) would be detectable in a no-task resting state. EEG recorded during resting was compared between Qigong meditators and controls. Using LORETA (low resolution electromagnetic tomography) to compute the intracerebral source locations, differences in brain activations between groups were found in the inhibitory delta EEG frequency band. In the meditators, appraisal systems were inhibited, while brain areas involved in the detection and integration of internal and external sensory information showed increased activation. This suggests that neuroplasticity effects of long-term meditation practice, subjectively described as increased awareness and greater detachment, are carried over into non-meditating states.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Tei, S.
Secondary author(s):
Faber, P., Lehmann, D., Tsujiuchi, T., Kumano, H., Pascual-Marqui, R., Gianotti, L., Kochi, K.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Tei, S., Faber, P., Lehmann, D., Tsujiuchi, T., Kumano, H., Pascual-Marqui, R., Gianotti, L., & Kochi, K. (2009). Meditators and non-meditators: EEG source imaging during resting. Brain Topography, 22(3), 158-165. doi: 10.1007/s10548-009-0107-4
2-year Impact Factor: 2.080|2009
Times cited: 34|2020-03-11
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q3
Keywords: Meditation / Qigong / LORETA / Plasticity / Electroencephalogram (EEG) localization

Meditators and non-meditators: EEG source imaging during resting

Meditators and non-meditators: EEG source imaging during resting

DocumentReduced functional connectivity between cortical sources in five meditation traditions detected with lagged coherence using EEG tomography2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.05
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Reduced functional connectivity between cortical sources in five meditation traditions detected with lagged coherence using EEG tomography
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811912000596
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Brain functional states are established by functional connectivities between brain regions. In experienced meditators (13 Tibetan Buddhists, 15 QiGong, 14 Sahaja Yoga, 14 Ananda Marga Yoga, 15 Zen), 19-channel EEG was recorded before, during and after that meditation exercise which their respective tradition regards as route to the most desirable meditative state. The head surface EEG data were recomputed (sLORETA) into 19 cortical regional source model time series. All 171 functional connectivities between regions were computed as 'lagged coherence' for the eight EEG frequency bands (delta through gamma). This analysis removes ambiguities of localization, volume conduction-induced inflation of coherence, and reference-dependence. All significant differences (corrected for multiple testing) between meditation compared to no-task rest before and after meditation showed lower coherence during meditation, in all five traditions and eight (inhibitory as well as excitatory) frequency bands. Conventional coherence between the original head surface EEG time series very predominantly also showed reduced coherence during meditation. The topography of the functional connectivities was examined via PCA-based computation of principal connectivities. When going into and out of meditation, significantly different connectivities revealed clearly different topographies in the delta frequency band and minor differences in the beta-2 band. The globally reduced functional interdependence between brain regions in meditation suggests that interaction between the self process functions is minimized, and that constraints on the self process by other processes are minimized, thereby leading to the subjective experience of non-involvement, detachment and letting go, as well as of all-oneness and dissolution of ego borders during meditation.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Faber, P., Tei, S., Pascual-Marqui, R., Milz, P., Kochi, K.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Lehmann, D., Faber, P., Tei, S., Pascual-Marqui, R., Milz, P., & Kochi, K. (2012). Reduced functional connectivity between cortical sources in five meditation traditions detected with lagged coherence using EEG tomography. NeuroImage, 60(2), 1574-1586. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.042
2-year Impact Factor: 6.252|2012
Times cited: 66|2020-03-11
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q1
Keywords: Source model lagged cortical EEG coherence / LORETA / Five meditation traditions / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / Functional connectivity

Reduced functional connectivity between cortical sources in five meditation traditions detected with lagged coherence using EEG tomography

Reduced functional connectivity between cortical sources in five meditation traditions detected with lagged coherence using EEG tomography

DocumentEEG source imaging during two Qigong meditations2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.06
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
EEG source imaging during two Qigong meditations
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10339-012-0441-4
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Experienced Qigong meditators who regularly perform the exercises "Thinking of Nothing" and "Qigong" were studied with multichannel EEG source imaging during their meditations. The intracerebral localization of brain electric activity during the two meditation conditions was compared using sLORETA functional EEG tomography. Differences between conditions were assessed using t statistics (corrected for multiple testing) on the normalized and log-transformed current density values of the sLORETA images. In the EEG alpha-2 frequency, 125 voxels differed significantly; all were more active during "Qigong" than "Thinking of Nothing," forming a single cluster in parietal Brodmann areas 5, 7, 31, and 40, all in the right hemisphere. In the EEG beta-1 frequency, 37 voxels differed significantly; all were more active during "Thinking of Nothing" than "Qigong," forming a single cluster in prefrontal Brodmann areas 6, 8, and 9, all in the left hemisphere. Compared to combined initial-final no-task resting, "Qigong" showed activation in posterior areas whereas "Thinking of Nothing" showed activation in anterior areas. The stronger activity of posterior (right) parietal areas during "Qigong" and anterior (left) prefrontal areas during "Thinking of Nothing" may reflect a predominance of self-reference, attention and input-centered processing in the "Qigong" meditation, and of control-centered processing in the "Thinking of Nothing" meditation.
Accessibility: Document exists in file (previous version submitted for publication)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Faber, P.
Secondary author(s):
Lehmann, D., Tei, S., Tsujiuchi, T., Kumano, H., Pascual-Marqui, R., Kochi, K.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Faber, P., Lehmann, D., Tei, S., Tsujiuchi, T., Kumano, H., Pascual-Marqui, R., & Kochi, K. (2012). EEG source imaging during two Qigong meditations. Cognitive Processing, 13(3), 255-265. doi: 10.1007/s10339-012-0441-4
2-year Impact Factor: 1.754|2012
Times cited: 8|2020-03-11
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q3
Keywords: Meditation / LORETA / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / Qigong / Meditation exercise “Thinking of Nothing”

EEG source imaging during two Qigong meditations

EEG source imaging during two Qigong meditations

DocumentActive intracerebral areas (EEG LORETA) in non-meditators and experienced meditators differ during resting2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.07
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Active intracerebral areas (EEG LORETA) in non-meditators and experienced meditators differ during resting
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://www.med.uni-giessen.de/physio/Kognitive_Neurophysiologie_2009_2_1.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Do experienced meditators and meditation-naïve people have different brain functional states during no-task resting 19 channel EEG was recorded (versus average reference) from 8 QiGong meditators with 3. 30 years experience (mean 11.5+/-8.8) and 9 meditation-naïve controls (mean ages 41+/- 10 years (3 males), and 37+/-6 years (3 males), respectively) during eyes closed rest (sitting; meditators did not meditate). All artifact-free 2-second EEG epochs (mean 33.9+/-8.5/subject) were recomputed into intracortical 3 dimensional generator distributions using LORETA (2394 voxels) for each subject and each of the 8 EEG frequency bands. Results were normalized per frequency band and subject (total current density across all LORETA voxels scaled to 1). Current density of all voxels was tested (t tests) for differences between groups for each frequency band. An exceedance proportion test correcting for multiple testing identified voxels at p<0.05. Only differences in delta frequency band (1.5-6 Hz) were significant (355 voxels): 229 were stronger, 126 weaker in meditators than controls. All but 4 stronger voxels were in anterior areas (BA 9, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46, 47), 81 of them left, 144 right; all weaker voxels were in central-posterior areas (BA 4, 6, 7, 18, 19, 22, 30, 31, 32, 37, 39, 40), 107 of them left, 19 right. - In sum: during task-free resting, experienced meditators had different brain states compared to non-meditators. Meditators had stronger delta EEG activity than non meditators in frontal cortex (64% right hemisphere voxels), and weaker delta activity in central-posterior cortex (85% left hemisphere voxels). In view of the general assumption that EEG delta activity represents inhibition, experienced meditators have stronger inhibitory activity than controls anterior right-preponderant, and less inhibitory activity central-posterior predominantly left. These results suggest that meditators reduce internal information processing while enhancing input and output processing, an interpretation that agrees with the meditators’ subjective experience of disengaging from perceived information. (Partial support by Bial Grant No. 44 2006/2007.)
Accessibility: Document exists in file (poster)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Notes:
Abstract and respective poster in attachment
Author: Faber, P.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Lehmann, D., Gianotti, L., Tsujiuchi, T., Kumano, H., Kochi, K.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Faber, P., Tei, S., Lehmann, D., Gianotti, L., Tsujiuchi, T., Kumano, H., & Kochi, K. (2009). Active intracerebral areas (EEG LORETA) in non-meditators and experienced meditators differ during resting. Kognitive Neurophysiologie des Menschen/ Human Cognitive Neurophysiology, 2(1), 9-10.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Meditation / Qigong / Resting / LORETA / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / Brain states

Active intracerebral areas (EEG LORETA) in non-meditators and experienced meditators differ during resting

Active intracerebral areas (EEG LORETA) in non-meditators and experienced meditators differ during resting

DocumentEEG in Tibetan Buddhist meditators during rest and meditation, and effects of meditation experience2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.08
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
EEG in Tibetan Buddhist meditators during rest and meditation, and effects of meditation experience
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://www.med.uni-giessen.de/physio/Kognitive_Neurophysiologie_2009_2_1.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Nineteen-channel EEG from 13 Tibetan Buddhist meditators (27-58 years old, mean 39+/- 8) with 2 to 25 years experience in meditation was recorded during task-free resting while not meditating, and during meditation aiming at the condition of self-dissolution. The sequence ’rest - meditation - rest’ was recorded twice. 286 artifact-free seconds EEG during rest (1084 seconds during meditation) were available on average/subject. EEG was analyzed into power spectra (1.5 to 44 Hz, versus average reference). Spectra were averaged for each subject, separately for the 2 meditation and the 4 rest conditions. From mean spectra across the 19 channels we computed 1) centroid spectral frequency for the full 1.5-44 Hz band, and 2) integrated power for each of the 8 EEG frequency sub-bands (delta to gamma). From the 19 channel spectra, we computed 3) the location of the gravity center of band power distribution over the 19 scalp recording locations. Results were A) compared between meditation and rest, and B) correlated with years of meditation experience controlled for age. Significant results were: A) Comparing meditation versus rest, full-band spectral centroid frequency was higher during meditation, power in theta and alpha 1 frequency bands was lower during meditation, and location of gravity center of band power distribution on the scalp was more left for delta, and more posterior for beta bands during meditation. B) With increasing meditation experience, fullband spectral centroid frequency decreased in meditation, theta and alpha1 frequency band power increased but beta2 and beta3 band power decreased in meditation (theta power increased also in rest), and gravity center location of band power distribution of alpha1 and of all higher frequency bands moved posterior during rest and meditation. These results are in agreement with concentration-related changes from rest to meditation, and suggest lessening of these differences with increasing experience in meditation. (Supported by Bial Grant No. 44 2006/2007).
Accessibility: Document exists in file (poster)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Notes:
Abstract and respective poster in attachment
Author: Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Kochi, K.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Lehmann, D., Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., & Kochi, K. (2009). EEG in Tibetan Buddhist meditators during rest and meditation, and effects of meditation experience. Kognitive Neurophysiologie des Menschen/Human Cognitive Neurophysiology, 2(1), 12-13.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Tibetan Buddhist meditation / Resting / Electroencephalogram (EEG)

EEG in Tibetan Buddhist meditators during rest and meditation, and effects of meditation experience

EEG in Tibetan Buddhist meditators during rest and meditation, and effects of meditation experience

DocumentScalp EEG connectivity and intracerebral electrical connectivity (sLORETA lagged coherence) during resting and five meditation traditions2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.09
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Scalp EEG connectivity and intracerebral electrical connectivity (sLORETA lagged coherence) during resting and five meditation traditions
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://www.med.uni-giessen.de/physio/Kognitive_Neurophysiologie_2009_2_1.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Brain electric functional connectivity was studied in experienced meditators of five traditions (13 Tibetan Buddhists ’TB’, 15 QiGong ’QG’, 14 Sahaja Yoga ’SY’, 14 Ananda Marga Yoga ’AY’, 15 Soto Zen ’Zen’) during tradition specific meditation (self-dissolution, QiGong, Samadhi, Satori) and during wakeful resting before (’rest1’) and after (’rest2’) meditation. EEG (19-56 electrodes) was computed (via sLORETA, current density in 6239 voxels) into intracerebral waveshapes of 19 intracerebral regions (ROIs) that correspond to cortex underlying the 10/20 electrode positions. Functional connectivity was computed from scalp-recorded data as conventional coherence between 19 locations, and from sLORETA waveshapes as ’lagged coherence’ between 19 ROI’s; lagged coherence only measures connections with time delay; these are interpretable as true functional connectivity. - For each meditator group, t tests identified significant coherence differences between rest1 vs meditation and rest2 vs meditation in each of 8 EEG frequency bands (delta to gamma). Between 19 locations or ROIs, there are 171 connections. For each subject and frequency band, the percentage of connections were counted that reached significant different coherence between rest1 vs meditation and rest2 vs meditation; from these two values, mean was computed, and averaged across all 8 bands for each tradition separately. For scalp coherences, in the 5 traditions, between 1% to 4% of the connections were significant higher in meditation than rest, between 6% to 36% lower; for intracerebral lagged coherence, 0% were higher, between 26% to 68% were lower. On average across the 5 traditions, scalp coherence decreased most strongly in alpha1&2 and beta1&2, while intracerebral lagged coherence decreased most strongly in delta, theta, beta1&2. For the gamma frequency band alone, scalp coherences were higher between 1% to 13%, lower between 1% to 27%; intracerebral lagged coherences were higher in 0%, lower between 2% to 75% of cases. In sum, all 5 traditions clearly showed more significant decreases than increases in scalp coherence, and only significant decreases, no increases in intracerebral lagged coherence that avoids distorting volume conduction. Contrary to published reports of strongly increased gamma band coherence in meditation, our 5 traditions on average in scalp coherence increased significantly only 4% of the gamma band coherences while 9% decreased; in intracerebral lagged coherence none increased but 44% decreased. (Partial support by Bial Grant No. 44 2006/2007).
Accessibility: Document exists in file (poster)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Notes:
Abstract and respective poster in attachment
Author: Faber, P.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Pascual-Marqui, R., Gianotti, L., Kumano, H., Kochi, K., Lehmann, D.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Faber, P., Tei, S., Pascual-Marqui, R., Gianotti, L., Kumano, H., Kochi, K., & Lehmann, D. (2009). Scalp EEG connectivity and intracerebral electrical connectivity (sLORETA lagged coherence) during resting and five meditation traditions. Kognitive Neurophysiologie des Menschen/ Human Cognitive Neurophysiology, 2(1), 8-9.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Five meditation traditions / Resting / Meditation / sLORETA / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / Scalp EEG coherence

Scalp EEG connectivity and intracerebral electrical connectivity (sLORETA lagged coherence) during resting and five meditation traditions

Scalp EEG connectivity and intracerebral electrical connectivity (sLORETA lagged coherence) during resting and five meditation traditions

DocumentEEG frequency-band LORETA distinguishes meditation from resting in Qigong meditators2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.10
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
EEG frequency-band LORETA distinguishes meditation from resting in Qigong meditators
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/209314
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
AIMS:
Common across schools of meditation is the ultimate goal of calming of the mind, implying mental detachment of the self from mundaine preoccupations. The question arises how brain activity during optimal meditation differs from task-free resting. We studied this in experienced Qigong meditators.
METHODS:
19 channel EEG was recorded from eight meditators (mean age: 41.5 years, SD = 10.4; mean meditation experience: 11.5 years, SD = 8.8, range 3-30) during optimal meditation condition (10 minutes, instruction: ‘thinking of nothing’) and task-free eyes closed resting, i.e. 4 minutes before (‘pre-rest’) and 4 minutes after meditation (‘post-rest’). Artifact-free EEG average/subject: meditation 355 sec (SE = 47), pre-rest 85 sec (SE = 3.9), post-rest 78 sec (SE = 4.1). LORETA tomography analysis [1] was used to compute electric source strength in 2394 cortical voxels separately for the eight independent EEG frequency bands of delta 1.5-6 Hz, theta 6.5-8 Hz, alpha1 8.5-10 Hz, alpha2 10.5-12 Hz, beta1 12.5-18 Hz, beta2 18.5-21 Hz, beta3 21.5-30 Hz and gamma 35-44 Hz for each condition and subject. Voxel-wise, ‘difference C’ was computed as statistical comparison of electric source strenght between ‘difference A’ (the difference between meditation and pre-rest) and the corresponding ‘difference B’ (the difference between meditation and post-rest), separate for each frequency band, using t tests corrected for multiple testing.
RESULTS:
Only the alpha 2 band yielded significant results of difference C. All significant cases involved voxels where pre-rest as well as post rest differed from meditation in the same direction. All significant voxels were in the left hemisphere. Meditation had higher power (total 12 voxels: in left temporal sup. and inf. gyrus (BAs 20, 22), left parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus (BAs 35, 26)), and lower power in left association cortex (21 voxels in BA 7, 2 in BA 5).
CONCLUSIONS:
The results show that meditation compared to rest induces changes only in the EEG high alpha frequency band and only in left hemisphere. Accepting that increased alpha band power implies inhibition, the LORETA results during mind-calming meditation suggest reduced functioning of left hemisphere memory processes and increased functioning of association processes, conceivably reflecting decreased personalizing of fleeting associations. Supported in part by Bial Foundation grant 44/06.
Reference
1. Pascual-Marqui RD et al. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 1999;90:169–179
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Tei, S.
Secondary author(s):
Faber, P., Lehmann, D., Tsujiuchi, T., Pascual-Marqui, R., Kumano, H.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Tei, S., Faber, P., Lehmann, D., Tsujiuchi, T., Pascual-Marqui, R., & Kumano, H. (2009). EEG frequency-band LORETA distinguishes meditation from resting in Qigong meditators. Neuropsychobiology, 59(2), 65-66.
2-year Impact Factor: 2.675|2011
Times cited: 2|2019-06-07
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q2
Keywords: Meditation / Qigong / Meditation exercise “Thinking of Nothing” / LORETA / Electroencephalogram (EEG)

EEG frequency-band LORETA distinguishes meditation from resting in Qigong meditators

EEG frequency-band LORETA distinguishes meditation from resting in Qigong meditators

DocumentEEG in Tibetan Buddhist meditators differs in rest and meditation, and depends on meditation experience2008

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.11
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
EEG in Tibetan Buddhist meditators differs in rest and meditation, and depends on meditation experience
Publication year: 2008
Accessibility:
Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Notes:
Abstract and respective poster in attachment
Author: Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Kochi, K.
Document type:
Abstract book
Reference:
Lehmann, D., Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., & Kochi, K. (2008). EEG in Tibetan Buddhist meditators differs in rest and meditation, and depends on meditation experience. In Abstract book of the Neuroscience Center Zurich (ZNZ) Symposium, Abstract Nr. 137 (pp. 94-95).
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Tibetan buddhists / Meditation / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / Resting

Abstract

Abstract

Poster

Poster

DocumentMeditators and non-meditators activate different intracerebral areas (EEG LORETA) during resting2008

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.12
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Meditators and non-meditators activate different intracerebral areas (EEG LORETA) during resting
Publication year: 2008
Accessibility:
Document exists in file (poster)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Notes:
Abstract and respective poster in attachment
Author: Faber, P.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Lehmann, D., Gianotti, L., Tsujiuchi, T., Kumano, H., Kochi, K.
Document type:
Abstract book
Reference:
Faber, P., Tei, S., Lehmann, D., Gianotti, L., Tsujiuchi, T., Kumano, H., & Kochi, K. (2008). Meditators and non-meditators activate different intracerebral areas (EEG LORETA) during resting. In Abstract book of the Neuroscience Center Zurich (ZNZ) Symposium, Abstract Nr. 136 (p. 95).
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Meditation / Qigong / LORETA / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / Resting

Meditators and non-meditators activate different intracerebral areas (EEG LORETA) during resting

Meditators and non-meditators activate different intracerebral areas (EEG LORETA) during resting

DocumentP 75 - Scalp EEG connectivity and intracerebral electrical connectivity (sLORETA-lagged coherence) during resting and meditation2008

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.13
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
P 75 - Scalp EEG connectivity and intracerebral electrical connectivity (sLORETA-lagged coherence) during resting and meditation
Publication year: 2008
URL:
http://www.sanp.ch/docs/2008/2008-07/2008-07-Mitteilungen.PDF
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
In meditators of four traditions (13 Tibetan Buddhists TB, 15 QiGong QG, 14 Sahaja Yoga SY, 14 Ananda Marga Yoga AY) we studied brain electric functional connectivity during wakeful resting before (rest1) and after (rest2) tradition-specific meditation (self-dissolution, QiGong, Samadhi). 19-electrode EEG was recomputed via sLORETA current density (6239 voxels) into intracerebral waveshapes of 19 intracerebral regions (ROIs) corresponding to the cortex underlying the 10/20 electrode schematic. Functional connectivity was computed as conventional coherence (‘total coherence’) from the scalp-recorded data and as ‘lagged coherence’ from the sLORETA-based waveshapes (lagged coherence omits zero phase lag, thus only measuring connections with time delay; these are interpretable as true functional connectivity). For each meditator group t tests identified significant coherence differences between rest1 and rest2 versus meditation in each of 8 EEG frequency bands (delta to gamma). Between 19 electrodes (or ROIs) there are 171 connections; in each subject and frequency band all connections were counted that reached significant different coherence between rest1 and rest2 versus meditation. Summing significant cases in TB,QG, SY and AY across all 8 bands, using scalp coherences, in the four traditions between 0 and 3% of the connections were significantly higher in meditation than rest, between 6 and 16% lower; using intracerebral lagged coherence, 0% were higher, but between 26 and 61% were lower. On average across the four traditions,
scalp coherence decreased most strongly in alpha1 and 2 and beta1 and 2, while intracerebral-lagged coherence decreased most strongly in delta, theta and beta1 and 2. For the gamma frequency band alone scalp coherences were higher between 1 and 13%, lower between 1 and 6%; intracerebral-lagged coherences were higher in 0%,lower between 2 and 75% of cases. – Thus, all four traditions clearly showed more significant decreases than increases in scalp coherence, and only significant decreases, no increases in intracerebral-lagged coherence that avoids distorting volume conduction. Contrary to reports of strongly increased gamma coherence in meditation, averaged across our four traditions, in scalp coherence only 5% of the gamma band coherences significantly increased, 4% decreased, while in intracerebral-lagged coherence none increased but 38% decreased. (Bial Grant 44-2006/2007)
Accessibility: Document exists in file (poster)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Notes:
Abstract and respective poster in attachment
Author: Faber, P.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Pascual-Marqui, R., Gianotti, L., Kumano, H., Kochi, K., Lehmann, D.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Faber, P., Tei, S., Pascual-Marqui, R., Gianotti, L., Kumano, H., Kochi, K., & Lehmann, D. (2008). P 75 - Scalp EEG connectivity and intracerebral electrical connectivity (sLORETA-lagged coherence) during resting and meditation. Swiss Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 159(7), 466.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Five meditation traditions / Meditation / Resting / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / sLORETA / Scalp EEG coherence

P 75 - Scalp EEG connectivity and intracerebral electrical connectivity (sLORETA-lagged coherence) during resting and meditation

P 75 - Scalp EEG connectivity and intracerebral electrical connectivity (sLORETA-lagged coherence) during resting and meditation

DocumentTraining in breath counting is reflected by EEG power and LORETA functional images2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.14
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Training in breath counting is reflected by EEG power and LORETA functional images
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.med.uni-giessen.de/physio/Kognitive_Neurophysiologie_2010_3_1.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Does breath count training alter brain electric activity? Breath counting is a basic exercise for meditation. Since meditation has been suggested as migraine treatment, we wanted to determine whether breath count training affects brain activity assessed with EEG. On attack free days, 19-channel EEG were recorded from 16 migraine patients (mean age 38.3 years, SD=7.72; 12 women) during initial resting, breath counting (repeatedly count one to ten for 5 minutes) and final resting, all with eyes closed. Seven of these patients were assigned to do one month of breath count training; thereafter, all EEG recordings were repeated. EEG was spectral analyzed versus average reference; mean relative power across channels was computed in the eight independent frequency bands. EEG-LORETA funtional imaging was used to localize changes observed in the head surface EEG recordings. ANOVA’s (2 sessions x 2 conditions x 2 groups) for the 8 frequency bands revealed no main effects, but an interaction (p=0.058) in the theta frequency band. In this band, post-hoc tests showed, during the second session, a significant power increase from initial to final resting only in the trained group. LORETA functional tomography revealed that the observed differences consisted in significantly (corrected for multiple testing) increased voxel strength in left parietal areas. In sum, state-dependent learning effects were observed in the EEG after one-month training of breath counting: these effects occurred not in the resting state, but in the state immedialy after having completed a breath count exercise. Partly supported by Bial Foundation 44-06
Accessibility: Document exists in file (poster)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Notes:
Abstract and respective poster in attachment
Author: Tei, S.
Secondary author(s):
Chen, C., Faber, P., Hsiao, P., Lehmann, D.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Tei, S., Chen, C., Faber, P., Hsiao, P., & Lehmann, D. (2010). Training in breath counting is reflected by EEG power and LORETA functional images. Kognitive Neurophysiologie des Menschen/ Human Cognitive Neurophysiology, 3(1), 51-52.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Breath counting / Meditation / Migraine / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / LORETA

Training in breath counting is reflected by EEG power and LORETA functional images

Training in breath counting is reflected by EEG power and LORETA functional images

DocumentEEG power spectra, LORETA areas and self-rated headache pain2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.15
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
EEG power spectra, LORETA areas and self-rated headache pain
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.med.uni-giessen.de/physio/Kognitive_Neurophysiologie_2010_3_1.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
How is the subjective intensity of headache reflected in EEG power spectra, and where in the brain is the origin? In 16 migraine patients (without aura, 6 medicated; mean age 38.3 years, SD=7.7; 12 women), we recorded 19-channel EEG during initial resting (4 minutes) on an attack-free day. Patients visual-analog self-rated headache intensity. On average/patient, 65.6 s artifact-free EEG was available. For each of the eight independent EEG frequency bands, means of spectral power across channels (absolute and relative), and LORETA functional images (absolute and relative voxel strength) were computed, and correlated with subjective headache intensity. The correlations were negative (p<0.1) with absolute power in the delta, alpha2, beta1 and 3, and gamma bands, but positive (p<0.1) with relative power in delta and beta2. Absolute LORETA voxel strength (corrected for multiple testing p<0.1) correlated negatively in all bands but delta; relative voxel strength correlated positively with delta through alpha1. Negative correlations with absolute LORETA strength concerned only left anterior voxels in theta and alpha1, only left-hemispheric in beta1 and beta2, predominantly left in alpha1 and beta3, but more right in gamma; all positive correlations with relative strength were right anterior (delta, theta and alpha1). Medicated and unmedicated patients showed agreeing tendencies. Thus, with increasing headache intensity, EEG absolute power decreased, localizing in the left hemisphere (some frequency bands predominantly anterior), while relative strength increased exclusively right anterior. The results suggest that increasing headache intensity is associated with increasing left- hemispheric anterior-weighted activation. Supported in part by Bial Foundation Grant 44-06
Accessibility: Document exists in file (poster)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Notes:
Abstract and respective poster in attachment
Author: Faber, P.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Chen, C., Hsiao, P., Lehmann, D.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Faber, P., Tei, S., Chen, C., Hsiao, P., & Lehmann, D. (2010). EEG power spectra, LORETA areas and self-rated headache pain. Kognitive Neurophysiologie des Menschen/ Human Cognitive Neurophysiology, 3(1), 48-49.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Migraine / Subjective headache intensity / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / LORETA

EEG power spectra, LORETA areas and self-rated headache pain

EEG power spectra, LORETA areas and self-rated headache pain

DocumentEEG LORETA lagged coherence during resting, attention to calculation and attention to breathing2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.16
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
EEG LORETA lagged coherence during resting, attention to calculation and attention to breathing
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.med.uni-giessen.de/physio/Kognitive_Neurophysiologie_2010_3_1.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Do different types of attention show related tendencies of intracerebral functional connectivity? 58-channel EEG of 25 healthy, meditation-naïve, right-handed, male students was recorded during three conditions of 5 minutes each with closed eyes in randomized order: (1) resting [3 runs], (2) mental arithmetic [2 runs], and (3) breath counting, a meditation initiation technique [2 runs]. Artifact] controlled EEG data were recomputed, for the 8 EEG frequency bands, into eLORETA intracerebral current densities. Interpretation of functional connectivity between brain areas when using head surface]recorded EEG suffers from (1) uncertainty about intracerebral source localization and (2) effects of volume conduction. Computing coherence via source modeling (e.g. LORETA) avoids problem (1), and excluding coherences with zero phase lag avoids problem (2). Accordingly, we computed ”lagged coherence” intracerebral connectivity between eLORETA current densities in 19 regions of interest. Averaged resting condition was compared to the breath counting and the arithmetic run of which participants post-hoc reported that their concentration during task
performance was best. Paired t-tests between conditions yielded differences of coherence at p<0.1 (corrected for multiple testing) for 4 frequency bands (alpha1, beta2, beta3, gamma) [number of connections in brackets]: breath counting showed lower coherence than rest (all 4 bands [2,1,1,6]) and arithmetic (alpha1, beta2, gamma [1,2,2]); arithmetic showed higher coherence than rest (gamma [1]). In sum, of all three conditions, breath counting showed lowest demands on intracerebral functional connectivity. The results do not support generally increased coherence during attention. Instead, they suggest that breath counting and mental arithmetic induce mental states whose inter-area connectivity differs in several frequency bands. In the gamma frequency band, their inter-area connectivity differs in opposite directions from rest.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Milz, P.
Secondary author(s):
Faber, P., Pascual-Marqui, R., Lehmann, D.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Milz, P., Faber, P., Pascual-Marqui, R., & Lehmann, D. (2010). EEG-LORETA lagged coherence during resting, attention to calculation and attention to breathing. Kognitive Neurophysiologie des Menschen/ Human Cognitive Neurophysiology, 3(1), 39-40.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Attention / Meditation / Resting / Breath counting / Mental arithmetic / Intracerebral functional connectivity

EEG LORETA lagged coherence during resting, attention to calculation and attention to breathing

EEG LORETA lagged coherence during resting, attention to calculation and attention to breathing

DocumentDeactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex in experienced Zen meditators2008

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.17
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Deactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex in experienced Zen meditators
Publication year: 2008
Accessibility:
Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Faber, P.
Secondary author(s):
Steiner, M., Lehmann, D., Pascual-Marqui, R., Jäncke, L., Esslen, M., Gianotti, L.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Faber, P., Steiner, M., Lehmann, D., Pascual-Marqui, R., Jäncke, L., Esslen, M., & Gianotti, L. (2008). Deactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex in experienced Zen meditators. Brain Topography, 20(3), 172. doi: 10.1007/s10548-007-0042-1
2-year Impact Factor: 3.288|2010
Times cited: 0|2019-06-07
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Zazen meditation / Brain activity / Resting / Plasticity

Deactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex in experienced Zen meditators

Deactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex in experienced Zen meditators

DocumentEEG dimensionality during zazen meditation and resting (poster)n.d.

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.18
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
EEG dimensionality during zazen meditation and resting (poster)
Publication year: n.d.
Accessibility:
Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Faber, P.
Secondary author(s):
Steiner, M., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R., Lehmann, D.
Document type:
Unpublished document
Reference:
Faber, P., Steiner, M., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R., & Lehmann, D. (2008). EEG dimensionality during zazen meditation and resting [poster].
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Zazen meditation / Resting / Electroencephalogram (EEG)

EEG dimensionality during zazen meditation and resting

EEG dimensionality during zazen meditation and resting

DocumentBrain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.19
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.bial.com/simposio/Livro_de_Actas_8_Simposio.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVES:
A major objective of our Bial grant concerned the exploration of conceivable commonalities and differences of brain electric states in different traditions of meditation.
METHODS:
Pursuing this goal, brain electric functional connectivity was studied in experienced meditators of five traditions (13 Tibetan Buddhists, 15 QiGong, 14 Sahaja Yoga, 14 Ananda Marga Yoga, 15 Soto Zen) during tradition-specific meditation (selfdissolution, QiGong, Samadhi, Satori) and during wakeful resting before ('rest1') and after ('rest2') meditation. EEG (19-56 electrodes) was computed (via sLORETA, current density
in 6239 voxels) into intracerebral waveshapes of 19 intracerebral regions (ROIs) that correspond to cortex underlying the 10/20 electrode positions. Functional connectivity was computed from scalp-recorded data as conventional coherence between 19 locations, and from sLORETA waveshapes as 'lagged coherence' between 19 ROI's[1]; lagged coherence only measures connections with time delay; these are interpretable as true
functional connectivity. - For each meditator group, t-tests identified significant coherence differences between rest1 vs meditation and rest2 vs meditation in each of 8 EEG frequency bands (delta to gamma). There are 171 connections between 19 locations or ROIs. For each subject and frequency band, we counted the percentage of connections that reached significantly different coherence between rest1 vs meditation and rest2 vs meditation; from these two %values, mean% was computed, and averaged across all 8 bands, separately for each tradition.
RESULTS:
In the 5 traditions, for scalp coherences, 1% to 4% of the connections were significant higher in meditation than rest, 6% to 36% lower; for intracerebral lagged coherence, 0% were higher, between 26% to 68% were lower. On average across the 5 traditions, scalp coherence decreased most strongly in alpha1&2 and beta 1&2, while intracerebral lagged coherence decreased most strongly in delta, theta, beta1&2. For the gamma frequency band alone, scalp coherences were higher between 1% to 13%, lower between 1% to 27%; intracerebral lagged coherences were higher in 0%, lower between 2% to 75% of cases.
CONCLUSIONS:
In sum, all 5 traditions clearly showed more significant decreases than increases in scalp coherence, and only significant decreases, but no increases in intracerebral lagged coherence that avoids distorting volume conduction. Contrary to published reports of strongly increased gamma band coherence in meditation[2], our 5 traditions on average in scalp coherence increased significantly only 4% of the gamma band coherences while 9% decreased; intracerebral lagged coherence showed no increase at all, but decrease in 44% of the coherences.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Reference:
Lehmann, D., Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., & Pascual-Marqui, R. (2010). Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium of Fundação Bial (pp. 205-206). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Meditation traditions / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / Lagged coherence / sLoreta / Functional connectivity

Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing

Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing

DocumentBrain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.20
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bial%20Sonhos%20Miolo_Total%20Bolsas.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVES:
Meditation reportedly leads to increased functional connectivity. Previous studies on specific meditation traditions computed coherence between head-surface EEG time series. This suffers from (a) reference-dependence, (b) ambiguous source localization, and (c) overestimation due to volume conduction [1]. EEG lagged intracerebral coherence between source-model time series solves these caveats [1]. With this method we studied functional connectivity during meditation in 5 groups of experienced meditators (13 Tibetan Buddhists, 15 QiGong, 14 Sahaja Yoga, 14 Ananda Marga Yoga, 15 Zen).
METHODS:
19-channel EEG during pre-rest, meditation and post-rest was recomputed (8 EEG frequency bands) into (a) conventional EEG coherence between 19 head-surface time-series and (b) intracerebral lagged coherence between 19 cortical regions of interest with sLORETA. The possible 171 (19*18/2) head-surface and intracerebral lagged coherences were statistically compared between conditions corrected for multiple testing. Topography of intracerebral lagged coherence (computing PCA-based principal connectivities) was compared going in and coming out of meditation.
RESULTS:
Meditation versus pre- and post-rest revealed only lowered intracerebral lagged coherence in all 5 groups and all 8 EEG frequency bands. Head-surface coherence also was prominently lowered. In delta and beta-2 bands, different connectivity topographies occurred going in and coming out of meditation [2].
CONCLUSIONS/DISCUSSION:
Contrary to reportedly increased functional connectivity in meditation, our results showed a global lowering of functional connectivity during meditation compared to pre- and post-rest, concerning all 8 EEG frequency bands and all 5 meditation traditions. This may reflect decreased interactions between the sub-processes of the self function and reduced constraints on the self function by other processes, leading to subjective experiences during meditation such as non-involvement and letting go, as well as of all-oneness and dissolution of ego borders.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Reference:
Lehmann, D., Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., & Pascual-Marqui, R. (2012). Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of Fundação Bial (p. 3/63). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: LORETA / Meditation / Lagged coherence / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / Functional connectivity

Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing

Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing

DocumentSubjectively experienced quality of breath counting and EEG LORETA lagged coherence2008

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
044 - Brain electric activity in meditation: Extension of earlier work and hypothesis testing
Duration: 2007-10 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Dietrich Lehmann, Shisei Tei, Pascal Faber, Hiraoki Kumano, Lorena Gianotti, Roberto Pascual-Marqui
Institution(s): The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
8 Articles (published or submitted)
14 Posters
Language: eng
Author:
Lehmann, D.
Secondary author(s):
Tei, S., Faber, P., Kumano, H., Gianotti, L., Pascual-Marqui, R.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Altered states of consciousness / Meditation

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-044.21
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 19/2006
Title:
Subjectively experienced quality of breath counting and EEG LORETA lagged coherence
Publication year: 2008
Accessibility:
Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Milz, P.
Secondary author(s):
Faber, P., Pascual-Marqui, R., Kochi, K., Lehmann, D.
Document type:
Abstract book
Reference:
Milz, P., Faber, P., Pascual-Marqui, R., Kochi, K., & Lehmann, D. (2008). Subjectively experienced quality of breath counting and EEG LORETA lagged coherence. In Abstract book of the Neuroscience Center Zurich (ZNZ) Symposium, Abstract Nr. 51 (pp. 43-44).
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Breath counting / Electroencephalogram (EEG) / LORETA