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File061 - Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting2007-02 2009-10

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-061
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 4/2006
Title:
061 - Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting
Duration: 2007-02 - 2009-10
Researcher(s):
Margaret Livingstone, Nancy Kanwisher, Johannes Haushofer, Camilo Libedinsky
Institution(s): Harvard Medical School, Dep. of Neurobiology, Boston (USA)
URL: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Livingstone, M.
Secondary author(s):
Kanwisher, N., Haushofer, J., Libedinsky, C.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes / Decision-making

DocumentFinal report - Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-061
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 4/2006
Title:
061 - Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting
Duration: 2007-02 - 2009-10
Researcher(s):
Margaret Livingstone, Nancy Kanwisher, Johannes Haushofer, Camilo Libedinsky
Institution(s): Harvard Medical School, Dep. of Neurobiology, Boston (USA)
URL: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Livingstone, M.
Secondary author(s):
Kanwisher, N., Haushofer, J., Libedinsky, C.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes / Decision-making

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-061.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 4/2006
Title:
Final report - Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa6106.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
Our first goal was to determine which brain areas represent the temporal delay of reward and to find the shape of the neural discounting function. Our results indicate that temporal delay of reward is reflected in the activation of caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens. This is the first study to identify neural correlates of discounted value free of confounds of decision-related activation.
Our second goal was to investigate brain activation during decisions between delayed outcomes, i.e. intertemporal choice. We found that activation in the caudate and the accumbens activation was driven by chosen value. We found a strong correlation in the left caudate nucleus between the steepness of the behavioral and neural discount functions. Thus, this region might underlie individual differences in intertemporal choice behavior.
Our third goal was to look for neural correlates of a behavioral framing effect we had observed in temporal discounting. However, further testing showed this effect to be an experimental artifact that arose from the fact that no real payoffs were involved in the original experiment. Psychologists studying economic decision-making have generally assumed that subjects make similar decisions both when real payoffs are involved, and when the questions are purely hypothetical. Our results challenge this assumption and underscore the importance of using real payoffs in economic decision-making experiments.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Livingstone, M.
Secondary author(s):
Kanwisher, N., Haushofer, J., Libedinsky, C.
Document type:
Final report
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Psychophysiology / Temporal delay of reward / Brain activation / Intertemporal choice / Temporal discounting / Reward / Decision-making

Final report - Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting

Final report - Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting

DocumentNeural mechanisms of temporal discounting2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-061
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 4/2006
Title:
061 - Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting
Duration: 2007-02 - 2009-10
Researcher(s):
Margaret Livingstone, Nancy Kanwisher, Johannes Haushofer, Camilo Libedinsky
Institution(s): Harvard Medical School, Dep. of Neurobiology, Boston (USA)
URL: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Livingstone, M.
Secondary author(s):
Kanwisher, N., Haushofer, J., Libedinsky, C.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes / Decision-making

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-061.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 4/2006
Title:
Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.bial.com/simposio/Livro_de_Actas_8_Simposio.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVES:
Temporal discounting refers to the decrease in subjective value as a result of delay of reward. Previous studies have focused on neural correlates of intertemporal choice, e.g. decisions between $10 today and $11 tomorrow. This approach makes it difficult to isolate neural correlates of individual delayed rewards, and to dissociate neural correlates of valuation from decision processes. The present study attempts to identify
the neural correlates of temporal discounting per se, as distinct from intertemporal choices.
METHODS:
Subjects were presented with single rewards of varying magnitude and delay, allowing us to identify neural correlates of temporally discounted value without confounds from decision processes. In addition, we could dissociate representations of valence vs. arousal due to the inclusion of both positive and negative payoffs.
RESULTS:
We find that delay of reward is reflected in the caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens, where activation increases going from long to short delays for gains, and decreases from long to short delays for losses. In addition, the steepness of the neural discount function in caudate nucleus correlated with individual discount parameters obtained in a separate testing session. Conversely, reward magnitude is most strongly reflected in nucleus accumbens, where activation increases from small to large gains and from large to small losses.
CONCLUSIONS:
Together, our results demonstrate that caudate nucleus represents temporally discounted value, independently of decision processes and arousal, and in a manner that reflects subjective time preferences. More generally, our study shows that limbic regions can encode abstract features of a reward, such as delay.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Livingstone, M.
Secondary author(s):
Kanwisher, N., Haushofer, J., Libedinsky, C.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Reference:
Livingstone, M., Kanwisher, N., Haushofer, J., & Libedinsky, C. (2010). Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium of Fundação Bial (p. 213). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Temporal discounting / Reward / Neuroeconomics / Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting

Neural mechanisms of temporal discounting