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File072 - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams2007-01 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
072 - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-01
Researcher(s):
Daniel Erlacher, Michael Schredl, Carmen Gebhart
Institution(s): University of Heidelberg, Institute for Sport and Sports Science, Heidelberg (Germany)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schredl, M., Gebhart, C.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Sleep and Dreams / Altered states of consciousness / Lucid dreaming

DocumentFinal report - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams2008

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
072 - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-01
Researcher(s):
Daniel Erlacher, Michael Schredl, Carmen Gebhart
Institution(s): University of Heidelberg, Institute for Sport and Sports Science, Heidelberg (Germany)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schredl, M., Gebhart, C.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Sleep and Dreams / Altered states of consciousness / Lucid dreaming

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Final report - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams
Publication year: 2008
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa7206_21022014.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
In this project the relationship between subjectively estimated time in REM lucid dreams and real time has been studied. In general, earlier studies on dream research showed a rather strong correlation between the duration in dreams and wakefulness. However, for lucid dreaming we found that performing squads took lucid dreamers more time than in the waking state while for counting the same participants showed no differences between dreaming and wakefulness. To find out if the task modality, the task length or the task complexity require longer times in lucid dreams than in wakefulness three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1 and 2, lucid dreamers spent two to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with PSG recording and were asked to either count from 1-10, 1-20 and 1-30 or walk 10, 20 or 30 steps in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. While dreaming they marked onset of lucidity as well as beginning and end of the counting task with a Left-Right-Left-Right eye movement and reported their dreams after being awakened. In the third experiment, participants performed an exercise involving gymnastics elements such as various jumps and a roll. As a general result we found – as in the study before – that performing a task in the lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. This tendency was found for all three tasks. However, there was no difference for the task modality (counting vs. motor task). Also the relative time for the different lengths of the tasks showed no difference. And finally, the more complex motor task (gymnastic routine) did not require more time in lucid dreams than the simple motor task.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schredl, M., Gebhart, C.
Document type:
Final report
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Psychophysiology / Sleep and Dreams / Motor tasks / Consciousness

Final report - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams

Final report - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams

DocumentRequired time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
072 - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-01
Researcher(s):
Daniel Erlacher, Michael Schredl, Carmen Gebhart
Institution(s): University of Heidelberg, Institute for Sport and Sports Science, Heidelberg (Germany)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schredl, M., Gebhart, C.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Sleep and Dreams / Altered states of consciousness / Lucid dreaming

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.bial.com/simposio/Livro_de_Actas_8_Simposio.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVES:
The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries (cf. Schredl, 2000). In a recent study by Erlacher and Schredl (2004) it was shown that the required time to perform a motor task in a lucid dream was significant longer than the required time for the same task in the waking state. In contrast, the time intervals for counting were quite similar in lucid dreams and in wakefulness. In this experiment a simple cognitive task was used to investigate the relationship between the time needed in a lucid dream and the time needed for the same activity performed in the waking state.
METHODS:
Two experiments were conducted whereas in experiment 1 the participant’s task was to count to 10, 20, and 30 and in experiment 2 to walk 10, 20, and 30 steps in their lucid dreams. The lucid dreamers were instructed to mark the events by LRLR: the onset of lucidity, the beginning of each sequence and the end of the lucid dream task. The LRLR are clearly visible in the EOG recording and the interval between two LRLR can be measured. Sleep was recorded by means of standard procedures (EEG, EOG, EMG) by the standard recording device Trex Longtime EEG recorder (XLTEK).
RESULTS:
For the first and second experiment the results showed that the absolute duration of counting or walking in the lucid dream takes more time than for counting or walking during wakefulness. The relative timing, however, revealed for both conditions quite similar percentages for the two conditions (lucid dreaming and wakefulness).
DISCUSSION:
The results showed that in lucid dreams a tendency exists to overestimate durations for simple cognitive and motor tasks, but, that those differences are not visible for the relative timing of the tasks. In general the statistical analysis has to face the problem of testing for equivalence, because the alternative hypothesis predicts a similar result and not a difference (c.f. Wellek, 2003).
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schredl, M., Gebhart, C.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Reference:
Erlacher, D., Schredl, M., & Gebhart, C. (2010). Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium of Fundação Bial (p. 218). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Sleep / Lucid dreaming / Time / Counting / Walking

Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams

Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams

DocumentEffects of task modality, length and complexity on time for activities in lucid dreams2013

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
072 - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-01
Researcher(s):
Daniel Erlacher, Michael Schredl, Carmen Gebhart
Institution(s): University of Heidelberg, Institute for Sport and Sports Science, Heidelberg (Germany)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schredl, M., Gebhart, C.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Sleep and Dreams / Altered states of consciousness / Lucid dreaming

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Effects of task modality, length and complexity on time for activities in lucid dreams
Publication year: 2013
URL:
http://www.zeisch.at/sgs-kongress/images/abstracts/50c2126f83a3e-Erlache_Effects_of_task_modality_length_and_complexity_on_time_for_activities_in_lucid_dreams.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
INTRODUCTION:
Nocturnal dreams can be considered as a kind of simulation of the real world on a higher cognitive level (Erlacher & Schredl, 2008). Within lucid dreams, the dreamer is aware of the dream state and thus able to control the ongoing dream content. Previous studies could demonstrate that it is possible to practice motor tasks during lucid dreams and doing so improved performance while awake (Erlacher & Schredl, 2010). Even though lucid dream practice might be a promising kind of cognitive rehearsal in sports, little is known about the characteristics of actions in lucid dreams. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between time in dreams and wakefulness because in an earlier study (Erlacher & Schredl, 2004) we found that performing squads took lucid dreamers 44.5 % more time than in the waking state while for counting the same participants showed no differences between dreaming and wakefulness. To find out if the task modality, the task length or the task complexity require longer times in lucid dreams than in wakefulness three experiments were conducted.
METHODS:
In the first experiment five proficient lucid dreamers spent two to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnographic recording to control for REM sleep and determine eye signals. Participants counted from 1-10, 1-20 and 1-30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. While dreaming they marked onset of lucidity as well as beginning and end of the counting task with a Left-Right-Left-Right eye movement and reported their dreams after being awakened. The same procedure was used for the second experiment with seven lucid dreamers except that they had to walk 10, 20 or 30 steps. In the third experiment nine participants performed an exercise involving gymnastics elements such as various jumps and a roll. To control for length of the task the gymnastic exercise in the waking state lasted about the same time as walking 10 steps.
RESULTS:
As a general result we found – as in the study before – that performing a task in the lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. This tendency was found for all three tasks. However, there was no difference for the task modality (counting vs. motor task). Also the relative time for the different lengths of the tasks showed no difference. And finally, the more complex motor task (gymnastic routine) did not require more time in lucid dreams than the simple motor task.
DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION:
The results showed that there is a robust effect of time in lucid dreams compared to wakefulness. The three experiments could not explain that those differences are caused by task modality, task length or task complexity. Therefore further possible candidates needs to be investigated e.g. experience in lucid dreaming or psychological variables.
REFERENCES:
Erlacher, D. & Schredl, M. (2010). Practicing a motor task in a lucid dream enhances subsequent performance: A pilot study. The Sport Psychologist, 24(2), 157-167.
Erlacher, D. & Schredl, M. (2008). Do REM (lucid) dreamed and executed actions share the same neural substrate? International Journal of Dream Research, 1(1), 7-13.
Erlacher, D. & Schredl, M. (2004). Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99, 1239-1242.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schädlich, M., Stumbrys, T., Schredl, M.
Document type:
Online abstract
Reference:
Erlacher, D., Schädlich, M., Stumbrys, T., & Schredl, M. (2013, February). Effects of task modality, length and complexity on time for activities in lucid dreams. Poster presented at the 5. Jahrestagung der Sportwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft der Schweiz, Basel.
Abstract retrieved from http://www.zeisch.at/sgs-kongress/images/abstracts/50c2126f83a3e-Erlache_Effects_of_task_modality_length_and_complexity_on_time_for_activities_in_lucid_dreams.pdf
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Sleep and dreams / Lucid dreaming / Motor tasks

DocumentDuration of cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
072 - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-01
Researcher(s):
Daniel Erlacher, Michael Schredl, Carmen Gebhart
Institution(s): University of Heidelberg, Institute for Sport and Sports Science, Heidelberg (Germany)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schredl, M., Gebhart, C.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Sleep and Dreams / Altered states of consciousness / Lucid dreaming

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Duration of cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams
Publication year: 2010
Accessibility:
Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Erlacher, D. (2010). Duration of cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32(Supp.), S75.
2-year Impact Factor: 2.452|2012
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Sleep and dreams / Lucid dreaming / Motor tasks / Cognitive activity

DocumentLucid dreaming: Neural virtual reality as a mechanism for performance enhancement2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
072 - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-01
Researcher(s):
Daniel Erlacher, Michael Schredl, Carmen Gebhart
Institution(s): University of Heidelberg, Institute for Sport and Sports Science, Heidelberg (Germany)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schredl, M., Gebhart, C.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Sleep and Dreams / Altered states of consciousness / Lucid dreaming

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072.05
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Lucid dreaming: Neural virtual reality as a mechanism for performance enhancement
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/ojs/index.php/IJoDR/article/view/588/pdf
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Chapin, H.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Erlacher, D., & Chapin, H. (2010). Lucid dreaming: Neural virtual reality as a mechanism for performance enhancement. International Journal Of Dream Research, 3(1), 7-10. doi: 10.11588/ijodr.2010.1.588
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Sleep and dreams / Lucid dreaming / Time

DocumentTime for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity2014

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
072 - Required time for cognitive and motor activities in lucid dreams
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-01
Researcher(s):
Daniel Erlacher, Michael Schredl, Carmen Gebhart
Institution(s): University of Heidelberg, Institute for Sport and Sports Science, Heidelberg (Germany)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schredl, M., Gebhart, C.
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Sleep and Dreams / Altered states of consciousness / Lucid dreaming

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-072.06
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity
Publication year: 2014
URL:
http://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01013/full
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries. The question if actions in dreams take the same time as in wakefulness can be tested by using lucid dreams where the dreamer is able to mark time intervals with prearranged eye movements that can be objectively identified in EOG recordings. Previous research showed an equivalence of time for counting in lucid dreams and in wakefulness (LaBerge, 1985; Erlacher and Schredl, 2004), but Erlacher and Schredl (2004) found that performing squats required about 40% more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. To find out if the task modality, the task length, or the task complexity results in prolonged times in lucid dreams, an experiment with three different conditions was conducted. In the first condition, five proficient lucid dreamers spent one to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants counted to 10, 20, and 30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. Lucidity and task intervals were time stamped with left-right-left-right eye movements. The same procedure was used for the second condition where eight lucid dreamers had to walk 10, 20, or 30 steps. In the third condition, eight lucid dreamers performed a gymnastics routine, which in the waking state lasted the same time as walking 10 steps. Again, we found that performing a motor task in a lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. Longer durations in the dream state were present for all three tasks, but significant differences were found only for the tasks with motor activity (walking and gymnastics). However, no difference was found for relative times (no disproportional time effects) and a more complex motor task did not result in more prolonged times. Longer durations in lucid dreams might be related to the lack of muscular feedback or slower neural processing during REM sleep. Future studies should explore factors that might be associated with prolonged durations.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Erlacher, D.
Secondary author(s):
Schädlich, M., Stumbrys, T., Schredl, M.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Erlacher, D., Schädlich, M., Stumbrys, T., & Schredl, M. (2014). Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity. Frontiers in Psychology, 4: 1013. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01013
2-year Impact Factor: 2.560|2014
Times cited: 10|2020-03-11
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q1
Keywords: Lucid dreaming / Time / Motor activity / Cognitive activity / REM sleep

Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity

Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity