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File078 - ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs2007-012009-03

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-078
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2006
Title:
078 - ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-03
Researcher(s):
Simon Dymond, Lanny Fields
Institution(s): Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Dep. of Psychology, University of Wales, Swansea (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Dymond, S.
Secondary author(s):
Fields, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Learning / Language

DocumentFinal report - ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-078
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2006
Title:
078 - ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-03
Researcher(s):
Simon Dymond, Lanny Fields
Institution(s): Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Dep. of Psychology, University of Wales, Swansea (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Dymond, S.
Secondary author(s):
Fields, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Learning / Language

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-078.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2006
Title:
Final report - ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa7806_21022014.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
Relational learning research has highlighted a close functional overlap between the outcomes of studies with pseudowords and natural language processing effects. The key phenomenon from relational learning research is called stimulus equivalence, which shows that after learning a series of inter-connected, conditional (i.e., if-then) unidirectional relations among physically dissimilar pseudowords, participants spontaneously reverse and relate novel, bidirectional combinations of these stimuli, without any further training.
In this research, we sought to investigate the behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of relational learning, in particular N400, using a novel, stimulus-paring yes/no procedure. The stimulus-pairing yes/no procedure involves the presentation of a sample followed by a choice stimulus. Participants are taught, through feedback, to press one of two keys representing Yes (or Same) and No (or Different). For example, given the pseudowords labelled “A1” and “B1”, pressing the Yes key was correct, while given the pair A1-B2 pressing the No key was correct. Also, given A2-B2, pressing Yes would be correct, and given the pair A2-B1, pressing the No key would be correct. In this way, two “within-class” relations (A1-B1 and A2-B2) and two “between-class” (A1-B2 and A2-B1) relations were explicitly taught. Following this training, and maintenance under conditions of reduced feedback, participants were, in Experiment 1, tested for symmetry, transitivity and one-node equivalence relations, in the absence of further feedback. In Experiment 2, two, three-member relations were trained and tested using one-to-many (A-B/A-C). If participants passed these tests, expanded relations were trained (C-D) and all trial types tested. EEG was recorded during this final test phase.
Overall, the modified training and testing protocol of Experiment 2 resulted in a higher pass-yield than Experiment 1. Behavioural results show that the stimulus-pairing yes/no procedure is effective with a combined one-to-many/linear-series training design as an efficient and reliable means of establishing arbitrary word-webs. The ERP analyses failed to reveal any significant differences between the trial types.
This highlights that the procedure, while effective for establishing arbitrary word webs, was not effective for evoking the N400 ERP.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Dymond, S.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
1
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Psychophysiology / Relational learning / Stimulus equivalence / N400

Final report - ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs

Final report - ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs

DocumentEvent-related potential correlates of emergent inference in human arbitrary relational learning2013

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-078
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2006
Title:
078 - ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-03
Researcher(s):
Simon Dymond, Lanny Fields
Institution(s): Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Dep. of Psychology, University of Wales, Swansea (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Dymond, S.
Secondary author(s):
Fields, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Learning / Language

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-078.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2006
Title:
Event-related potential correlates of emergent inference in human arbitrary relational learning
Publication year: 2013
URL:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166432812005591
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Two experiments investigated the functional-anatomical correlates of cognition supporting untrained, emergent relational inference in a stimulus equivalence task. In Experiment 1, after learning a series of conditional relations involving words and pseudowords, participants performed a relatedness task during which EEG was recorded. Behavioural performance was faster and more accurate on untrained, indirectly related symmetry (i.e., learn AB and infer BA) and equivalence trials (i.e., learn AB and AC and infer CB) than on unrelated trials, regardless of whether or not a formal test for stimulus equivalence relations had been conducted. Consistent with previous results, event related potentials (ERPs) evoked by trained and emergent trials at parietal and occipital sites differed only for those participants who had not received a prior equivalence test. Experiment 2 further replicated and extended these behavioural and ERP findings using arbitrary symbols as stimuli and demonstrated time and frequency differences for trained and untrained relatedness trials. Overall, the findings demonstrate convincingly the ERP correlates of intra-experimentally established stimulus equivalence relations consisting entirely of arbitrary symbols and offer support for a contemporary cognitive-behavioural model of symbolic categorisation and relational inference.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Wang, T.
Secondary author(s):
Dymond, S.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Percentiles:
7|2022-03-19
Reference:
Wang, T., & Dymond, S. (2013). Event-related potential correlates of emergent inference in human arbitrary relational learning. Behavioural Brain Research, 236(1), 332-343. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.08.033
2-year Impact Factor: 3.391|2013
Times cited: 12|2022-05-19
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q2
Keywords: Categories / Concepts / Relational inference / Stimulus equivalence / Relatedness / Directly trained / Event-related potential (ERP)

Event-related potential correlates of emergent inference in human arbitrary relational learning

Event-related potential correlates of emergent inference in human arbitrary relational learning

DocumentERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-078
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2006
Title:
078 - ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs
Duration: 2007-01 - 2009-03
Researcher(s):
Simon Dymond, Lanny Fields
Institution(s): Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Dep. of Psychology, University of Wales, Swansea (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Dymond, S.
Secondary author(s):
Fields, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Learning / Language

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-078.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2006
Title:
ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.bial.com/simposio/Livro_de_Actas_8_Simposio.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Words may come to acquire their relational/semantic functions on the basis of participation in derived stimulus relations, such as stimulus equivalence, and evoke the N400 ERP. The present series of experiments were designed to examine the behavioural and ERP correlates of stimulus equivalence relations using a novel, stimulus-pairing yes/no procedure. In Experiment 1, 30 right-handed participants were trained using a many-toone training design to form 2, 4-member relations (A-D, B-D, C-D) consisting entirely of pseudo-words. On every trial, a sample stimulus appeared for 1 s before being replaced by a fixation cross and then a comparison stimulus, which remained on screen until response keys marked ‘Yes’ or “No’ were pressed. Within (i.e., A1-D1-Yes) and between (i.e., A1-D2-No) discriminations were trained to a high accuracy before feedback was faded and symmetry (D-A, D-B, D-C) and equivalence relations (A-B, A-C, B-A, B-C, C-A, C-B)
subsequently tested. EEG recording from 32 sites was undertaken during participants’ only test exposure. Results indicated 21/32 passed the equivalence test. Grand average ERPs indicated no significant separation during the N400 epoch. In Experiment 2, a two-stage training and testing procedure was adopted, and only participants who passed the first phase progressed to the second. First, 2, 3-member relations were trained and tested using a linear-series design (A-B/B-C). Symmetry (B-A/C-B) was first tested, followed by transitivity (A-C) and equivalence (C-A). If participants passed all tests, they proceeded to a training phase in which expanded relations were trained (C-D). Acquisition of these relations was followed by tests for symmetry (D-C), 1-node transitivity (B-D), 1-node equivalence (D-B), 2-node transitivity (A-D), and 2-node equivalence (D-A). Overall, of 35 participants recruited, 7 failed to proceed beyond the preliminary phases, 4 failed the expanded relations phase and 24 passed. Analyses of the EEG data, however, failed to reveal any significant differences between the trial types. This highlights that the procedure, while effective for establishing arbitrary word webs, was not effective for evoking the N400 ERP. It is argued that the stimulus pairing yes/no procedure explicitly reinforces both between and within class discriminations. That is, participants have a direct history of learning that stimuli go together and which stimuli do not. N400 is typically evoked during violation of semantic expectancy; training participants that some stimuli go together and some do not mitigates the potential violation. In conclusion, the findings, which are currently being written up for publication, indicate that equivalence relations may be formed using the stimulus pairing yes/no procedure but that a separate task may be necessary to measure the ERPs evoked by the arbitrary, pseudo-words.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Dymond, S.
Secondary author(s):
Fields, L.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Dymond, S., & Fields, L. (2010). ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium of Fundação Bial (p. 219). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Relational learning / Stimulus equivalence / N400

ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs

ERP correlates of relational learning: Testing a behavioural model of word webs