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File157 - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality2007-012008-07

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
157 - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality
Duration: 2007-01 - 2008-07
Researcher(s):
James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems Inc., Springfield (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
3 Articles
Language: eng
Related objects:
PT/FB/BL-2008-59
Notes: The final report consists of two published articles that were recorded and scanned separately
Author: Houran, J.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Transliminality / Paranormal belief

DocumentFinal report - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality2008

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
157 - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality
Duration: 2007-01 - 2008-07
Researcher(s):
James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems Inc., Springfield (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
3 Articles
Language: eng
Related objects:
PT/FB/BL-2008-59
Notes: The final report consists of two published articles that were recorded and scanned separately
Author: Houran, J.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Transliminality / Paranormal belief

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Final report - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality
Publication year: 2008
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa15706_16102013.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
Houran and Lange (in press) reanalyzed data from two different studies (I Ching and haunt experiences) that examined transliminality and anomalous experiences simultaneously to determine if there was an “optimal level” of transliminality for putative psi. Transliminality and Sex effects on anomalous experiences were identified in one dataset, as indicated by statistically significant variation in subjects’ experiential response hierarchies. Next, these differential effects were identified also in the other dataset at the behavioral level as indicated by subjects’ performance on an I Ching task. Results suggest that putative psi was best facilitated in women with high Transliminality scores and men with low Transliminality scores. As a cross-check of this heuristic, Houran and Lange (in preparation) explored experimenter effects in an experiment with the Chinese book of divination the I Ching, which contains 64 hexagrams (6-line structures) and associated readings. Three coins are thrown six times to generate one of these hexagrams. Participants and Experimenters (N = 120) were recruited based on scoring patterns on Transliminality and Paranormal Belief to produce four experimental groups (N = 15 pairs each) of varying levels of Paranormal Belief and Transliminality: High/High; High/Low; Low/High and Low/Low. Participants selected 16 of 64 hexagram-descriptor pairs, based on their emotional or cognitive states of mind. A “hit” was observed when 1 of the 16 choices would come up (Pmce = .25). It was predicted that the hit rate of the High/High group would be significantly greater than chance, the High/High group would score significantly higher than the three control conditions (High/Low, Low/High, Low/Low) and that the three control conditions would score similarly. It was further expected that Transliminality, Paranormal Belief and Sex would show main and interaction effects for hit rate on the I Ching task. The hit rate on Hexagram 1 was 28 out of 60, or 46.7% which far exceeds the 25% chance level and the High/High group did have the highest raw score hit rate, but there were no significant main or interaction effects of Transliminality, Paranormal Belief or Sex. These surprising findings suggest that the specific differences in experimental protocols between the present study and past research are partly responsible. The two main differences involve (i) the notion of spontaneity and ambiguity related to the task and (ii) treating psi outcomes on the I Ching as a Rasch-trait variable rather than as independent observations.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Document type:
Final report
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Anomalous cognition / Transliminality

Final report - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality

Final report - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality

DocumentSearching for an optimal level of transliminality in relation to putative psi2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
157 - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality
Duration: 2007-01 - 2008-07
Researcher(s):
James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems Inc., Springfield (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
3 Articles
Language: eng
Related objects:
PT/FB/BL-2008-59
Notes: The final report consists of two published articles that were recorded and scanned separately
Author: Houran, J.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Transliminality / Paranormal belief

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Searching for an optimal level of transliminality in relation to putative psi
Publication year: 2009
Accessibility:
Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Secondary author(s):
Lange, R.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Houran, J., & Lange, R. (2009). Searching for an optimal level of transliminality in relation to putative psi. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 73, 92-102.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Transliminality / Psi / Sheep-goat effect / Experimenter effects / Parapsychology / Rasch scaling / Sex

Searching for an optimal level of transliminality in relation to putative psi

Searching for an optimal level of transliminality in relation to putative psi

DocumentEntropy and environmental mystery: A parapsychological perspective2007

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
157 - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality
Duration: 2007-01 - 2008-07
Researcher(s):
James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems Inc., Springfield (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
3 Articles
Language: eng
Related objects:
PT/FB/BL-2008-59
Notes: The final report consists of two published articles that were recorded and scanned separately
Author: Houran, J.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Transliminality / Paranormal belief

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Entropy and environmental mystery: A parapsychological perspective
Publication year: 2007
URL:
http://www.amsciepub.com/doi/abs/10.2466/pms.105.2.688-690
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Findings from parapsychological field studies grounded in cognitive illusions parallel the results from Stamps' 2007 research on environmental mystery in simulated environments. However, parapsychology also implicates certain perceptual-personality characteristics in the perception of some forms of environmental mystery. Thus, it is argued that environmental mystery is produced fundamentally by an interaction of the right type of percipient (primed to detect and give credence to ambiguous stimuli) in the right type of environment (full of ambiguous stimuli).
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Houran, J. (2007). Entropy and environmental mystery: A parapsychological perspective. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 105(2), 688-690. doi: 10.2466/pms.105.2.688-690
2-year Impact Factor: 0.387|2007
Times cited: 0|2020-03-10
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q4
Keywords: Parapsychology / Anomalous cognition

Entropy and environmental mystery: A parapsychological perspective

Entropy and environmental mystery: A parapsychological perspective

DocumentI Ching outcomes from experimental manipulations of transliminality and paranormal belief2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
157 - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality
Duration: 2007-01 - 2008-07
Researcher(s):
James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems Inc., Springfield (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
3 Articles
Language: eng
Related objects:
PT/FB/BL-2008-59
Notes: The final report consists of two published articles that were recorded and scanned separately
Author: Houran, J.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Transliminality / Paranormal belief

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
I Ching outcomes from experimental manipulations of transliminality and paranormal belief
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://www.aiprinc.org/abstracts_12.htm
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
We explored experimenter effects in a study with the Chinese book of divination the I Ching, which contains 64 hexagrams (6-line structures) and associated readings. Three coins are thrown six times to generate one of these hexagrams. Participants and Experimenters (combined N = 120) were recruited based on scoring patterns on Transliminality and Paranormal Belief to produce four experimental groups (N = 15 pairs each) of varying levels of Paranormal Belief and Transliminality: High/High; High/Low; Low/High and Low/Low. Participants selected 16 of 64 hexagram-descriptor pairs, based on their emotional or cognitive states of mind. A ‘hit’ was observed when 1 of the 16 choices would come up (PMCE = .25). It was predicted that the hit rate of the High/High group would be significantly greater than chance, the High/High group would score significantly higher than the three control conditions (High/Low, Low/High, Low/Low), and that the three control conditions would score similarly. It was further expected that Transliminality, Paranormal Belief and Sex would show main and interaction effects for hit rate on the I Ching task. The hit rate on First Hexagrams was 27 out of 60 (45%; p < .001), which far exceeds the 25% chance level, and the High/High group did have the highest raw score hit rate, but there were no significant main or interaction effects of Transliminality, Paranormal Belief or Sex. These surprising findings suggest that the specific differences in experimental protocols between the present study and past research are partly responsible. The two main differences discussed involve (i) the notion of spontaneity and ambiguity related to the task and (ii) treating psi outcomes on the I Ching as a Rasch-trait variable rather than as independent observations.
Accessibility: Document exists in file (previous version submitted for publication)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Secondary author(s):
Lange, R.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Houran, J., & Lange, R. (2012). I Ching outcomes from experimental manipulations of transliminality and paranormal belief. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 12(1), 39-58.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Transliminality / I Ching / Psi / Sheep-goat effect / Experimenter effects / Parapsychology / Rasch scaling / Sex effects

I Ching outcomes from experimental manipulations of transliminality and paranormal belief

I Ching outcomes from experimental manipulations of transliminality and paranormal belief

DocumentEnhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
157 - Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality
Duration: 2007-01 - 2008-07
Researcher(s):
James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems Inc., Springfield (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
3 Articles
Language: eng
Related objects:
PT/FB/BL-2008-59
Notes: The final report consists of two published articles that were recorded and scanned separately
Author: Houran, J.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Precognition / Transliminality / Paranormal belief

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-157.05
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 2/2006
Title:
Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.bial.com/simposio/Livro_de_Actas_8_Simposio.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVES:
We explored experimenter effects in an experiment with the Chinese book of divination the I Ching, which contains 64 hexagrams (6-line structures) and associated readings.
METHODS:
Three coins are thrown six times to generate one of these hexagrams. Participants and Experimenters (N = 120) were recruited based on scoring patterns on Transliminality and Paranormal Belief to produce four experimental groups (N = 15 pairs each) of varying levels of Paranormal Belief and Transliminality: High/High; High/Low; Low/High and Low/Low. Participants selected 16 of 64 hexagram-descriptor pairs, based on their emotional or cognitive states of mind. A “hit” was observed when 1 of the 16 choices would come up (Pmce = .25). It was predicted that the hit rate of the High/High group would be significantly greater than chance, the High/High group would score significantly higher than the three control conditions (High/Low, Low/High, Low/Low) and that the three control conditions would score similarly. It was further expected that Transliminality, Paranormal Belief and Sex would show main and interaction effects for hit rate on the I Ching task.
RESULTS:
The hit rate on Hexagram 1 was 28 out of 60, or 46.7% which far exceeds the 25% chance level and the High/High group did have the highest raw score hit rate, but there were no significant main or interaction effects of Transliminality, Paranormal Belief or Sex.
CONCLUSIONS:
These surprising findings suggest that the specific differences in experimental protocols between the present study and past research are partly responsible. The two main differences discussed involve (i) the notion of spontaneity and ambiguity related to the task and (ii) treating psi outcomes on the I Ching as a Rasch-trait
variable rather than as independent observations.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Reference:
Houran, J. (2010). Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium of Fundação Bial (p. 237). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: I Ching / Transliminality / Paranormal belief / Experimenter effects / Psi / Precognition

Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality

Enhancing hit rates on psi tests with optimal levels of transliminality