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File167 - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect2007-022010-01

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
167 - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Duration: 2007-02 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Stephan Schwartz, Ginette Nachman, William Frazer Morris
Institution(s): Laboratories for Fundamental Research, California (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Conference paper
Language: eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Nachman, G., Morris, W.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Assessment tools / Healing

DocumentFinal report - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
167 - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Duration: 2007-02 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Stephan Schwartz, Ginette Nachman, William Frazer Morris
Institution(s): Laboratories for Fundamental Research, California (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Conference paper
Language: eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Nachman, G., Morris, W.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Assessment tools / Healing

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
Final report - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa167-06_03012014.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
This study sought to answer the following: Is there a difference in muscular strength when individual holds substance inimical to life processes compared to substance essential for life? 2. Does effect involve input from person being measured, and kinesiologist doing measurement, or only person measured? 3. Is the result the same when different kinesiologists take measurement, or when no kinesiologist is involved? 4. Does belief, expectation, gender, or time cognition play a role?
METHODS:
Methods: 51 participants 3 trials: first kinesiologist, second kinesiologist, no kinesiologist testing using hand dynamometer. Each trial used pair of randomly numbered sealed vials, one vial saline solution, the other saline solution plus ionic hydroxlamine hydrochloride (NH3OH)+. Each trial involved a separate muscle test for each vial. All present blind to vial containing toxin. Kinesiologist force measured via pressure pad system.
RESULTS:
151 sets of trials toxic vial identified 80 times (53%), onetailed exact binomial p-value 0.258. Results kinesiologists: chance. Dynamometer results: chance. Testing whether significant difference in proportions for whom AK test worked based belief whether it would work non-significant chi-square value: 0.6 (p = 0.439) for trials with one kinesiologist, and 2.222 (p = 0.136) for hand dynamometer trials. Gender variable: no significant difference males and females, for trials of male kinesiologist or hand dynamometer, combined data for two female kinesiologists did reveal difference. Of 33 female sessions 15 successful (45%); 18 male sessions, 14 successful (78%) chi-square statistic: 4.96, p = 0.026. Given multiple testing chi-square results interpreted cautiously. Belief in whether or not AK test will work not significantly related to whether did work. Chi-square test time perception/correct vial choice: non-significant. Chi-square statistic using hand dynamometer data: 0.927, p-value = 0.629.
CONCLUSION:
Study and review of AK literature using QUADAS, STARD, JADAD and CONSORT suggest AK fails as reliable diagnostic tool upon which health decisions can be based.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Utts, J., Spottiswoode, J., Shade, C., Tully, L., Morris, W., Nachman, G.
Document type:
Final report
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Applied kinesiology / Muscle testing / Belief / Expectancy / Gender / Time perception / Nonlocal perception / Integrative medicine

Final report - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect

Final report - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect

DocumentP02.07. A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
167 - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Duration: 2007-02 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Stephan Schwartz, Ginette Nachman, William Frazer Morris
Institution(s): Laboratories for Fundamental Research, California (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Conference paper
Language: eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Nachman, G., Morris, W.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Assessment tools / Healing

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
P02.07. A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186%2F1472-6882-12-S1-P63.pdf
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Utts, J., Spottiswoode, J., Shade, C., Tully, L., Morris, W., Nachman, G.
Document type:
Abstract
Reference:
Schwartz, S. A., Utts, J., Spottiswoode, J., Shade, C., Tully, L., Morris, W., & Nachman, G. (2012). P02.07. A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect. BMC Complementary and Alternative, 12(Suppl 1), P63. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-S1-P63
2-year Impact Factor: 2.020|2014
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Parapsychology / Applied kinesiology / Muscle testing / Belief / Expectancy / Gender / Time perception

P02.07. A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect

P02.07. A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect

DocumentA study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
167 - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Duration: 2007-02 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Stephan Schwartz, Ginette Nachman, William Frazer Morris
Institution(s): Laboratories for Fundamental Research, California (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Conference paper
Language: eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Nachman, G., Morris, W.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Assessment tools / Healing

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://www.parapsych.org/uploaded_files/pdfs/00/00/00/00/03/2009_pa_abstracts.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Applied Kinesiology (AK) is a diagnostic technique widely used within the Integrative Medical community. In essence it posits that a question can be mentally held in a person’s mind, sometimes while they are holding a substance like a vitamin, or a food sample, and by measuring relative muscular weakness an answer as to whether the substance or the condition represented by the question is good for that person can be obtained. This AK is presumed to have a diagnostic capability. That being presumed this study asks: 1. Is there a difference in muscular strength when an individual holds a substance that is inimical to life processes (a poison solution), as compared to a substance that is essential for life (normal saline)? 2. Is this effect a transaction involving input from both the person being measured, and the kinesiologist doing the measurement, or is it only the person being measured? 3. As an extension of question 2, is the result the same when different kinesiologists take the measurement, or when no kinesiologist is involved? 4. Does belief, expectation, gender, or time cognition play a role in determining the response? To answer these questions, which would help to define the parameters of the AK process, 51 participants were tested during three trials each, first by one kinesiologist, then by another and, finally, with no kinesiologist present by grip strength indicated using a hand dynamometer, grip strength being a self-administered AK test of relative muscular strength. For each trial a pair of randomly numbered sealed vials, each pair in a randomly numbered plastic bag, was used as the objects of the trial. In each bag one vial contained saline solution while the other was filled with a slightly smaller amount of saline solution to which had been added ionic hydroxlamine hydrochloride (NH3OH)+, producing a toxic solution of 9 mg/ml. Each trial consisted of a separate muscle test for each vial. All present at the trials were blind as to which vial contained the toxin. And all who prepared the vials were blind to the trials. The force used by the kinesiologists in each of their trials was measured via a pressure pad system. The hand dynamometer trials were conducted with no kinesiologist present.
RESULTS:
Of the 151 sets of trials the toxic vial was identified correctly in 80 of them (53%), resulting in a one-tailed exact binomial p-value of.258. Results for two of the kinesiologists were almost exactly at chance. For the third kinesiologist there was a one-tailed exact binomial p-value of .18 (unadjusted for multiple testing). Results for the dynamometer were also almost exactly at chance. Testing whether there was a significant difference in proportions for whom the AK test worked based on belief about whether it would work resulted in non-significant chi-square values of 0.6 (p =.439) for the trials with one kinesiologist, and 2.222 (p = .136) for the hand dynamometer trials. The final variable examined was gender. While there was no significant difference in performance for males and females for the trials of the male kinesiologist or the hand dynamometer, the combined data for the two female kinesiologists did reveal a difference. Of the 33 sessions with females, only 15 were successful (45%) while for the 18 sessions with males, 14 were successful (78%) resulting in a chi-square statistic of 4.96, p = .026. However, given all of the chi-square tests performed in this section, the results must be interpreted with caution because of multiple testing. Results indicating belief in whether or not the AK test will work were not significantly related to whether or not it actually did work. A chi-square test of the relationship between time perception and correct vial choice showed no significant relationship. A chi-square test of the relationship between time perception and correct vial choice showed no significant relationships. The chi-square statistic for the relationship using the hand dynamometer data was 0.927, p = .629. The data in this study, particularly when seen in the larger context of a review of the literature from the AK field itself by Klinkoski and Leboeuf (1990), which considered 50 papers published between 1981 and 1987 by the International College of Applied Kinesiology, and the survey by Hall, Lewith, Brien, and Little, using standard evaluation criteria (QUADAS, STARD, JADAD and CONSORT), for research methodology, as well as six prior non-clinical studies, by Radin, Quintanar and Hill, Braud, Arnett, Friedenberg, and Kendler, Ludtke, and Kendler and Keating, all together suggest: The research published by the Applied Kinesiology field itself is not to be relied upon, and in the experimental studies that do meet accepted standards of science, Applied Kinesiology has not demonstrated that it is a useful or reliable diagnostic tool upon which health decisions can be based.
Accessibility: Document exists in file (power point presentation)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Utts, J., Spottiswoode, J., Shade, C., Tully, L., Morris, W., Nachman, G.
Document type:
Abstract book
Reference:
Schwartz, S. A., Utts, J., Spottiswoode, J., Shade, C., Tully, L., Morris, W., & Nachman, G. (2009). A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect. In In J. Palmer (Ed.), Abstracts of presented papers: The Parapsychological Association 52nd Annual Convention (pp. 21-22). Seattle, WA: Parapsychological Association.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Applied kinesiology / Muscle testing / Belief / Expectancy / Gender / Time perception

A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect

A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect

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DocumentA study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
167 - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Duration: 2007-02 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Stephan Schwartz, Ginette Nachman, William Frazer Morris
Institution(s): Laboratories for Fundamental Research, California (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Conference paper
Language: eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Nachman, G., Morris, W.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Assessment tools / Healing

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.bial.com/simposio/Livro_de_Actas_8_Simposio.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Is there a difference in muscle strength when individual holds substance inimical to life (poison), compared to substance essential (normal saline)? Does effect involve person measured, and kinesiologist measuring, or only person measured? Is result the same when different kinesiologists take measurement, or when no kinesiologist involved? Does belief, expectation, gender, or time cognition influence response? 51 participants tested three trials, first one kinesiologist, then another finally by grip strength using hand dynamometer. Each trial: two randomly numbered sealed vials in randomly numbered bag. Bag: one vial saline solution, second saline and ionic hydroxlamine hydrochloride (NH3OH)+. All at trial blind to toxin vial. All preparing vials blind to trials. Kinesiologist force measured by pressure pad. No kinesiologist present dynamometer trials. Results: 151 sets of trials toxic vial identified 80 (53%), one-tailed exact binomial p-value 0.258. Two kinesiologists almost exactly at chance. Third kinesiologist produced one-tailed exact binomial p-value 0.18 (unadjusted multiple testing). Dynamometer results almost exactly chance. Testing difference participants for whom AK test worked based on belief whether would work non-significant chi-square, 0.6 (p = 0.439) AK trials, and 2.222 (p = 0.136) for dynamometer trials. Gender: no significant difference males and females for male kinesiologist trials, or the hand dynamometer. Combined data two female kinesiologists revealed difference. 33 female sessions15 successful (45%); 18 sessions males, 14 successful (78%) resulting in chisquare 4.96, p = 0.026. Given multiple chi-square tests results seen with caution. Belief in whether or not AK test will work not significantly related whether did work. Chi-square test of relationship between time perception and correct vial choice no significant relationship. Chisquare relationship using dynamometer 0.927, p-value = 0.629. Literature review from AK field itself (Klinkoski and Leboeuf, 1990), 50 papers published,1981 and 1987 by the International College of Applied Kinesiology, survey by Hall, Lewith, Brien, and Little (2008), using standard evaluation criteria (QUADAS, STARD, JADAD and CONSORT), plus Radin 1984, Quintanar and Hill 1988, Braud 1989, Arnett, Friedenberg, and Kendler 1999, and Kendler and Keating 2003,
suggests: Research published AK field not reliable; experimental studies by others to accepted standards AK not reliable diagnostic tool.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Nachman, G., Morris, W.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Reference:
Schwartz, S. A., Nachman, G., & Morris, W. (2010). A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium of Fundação Bial (p. 244). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Applied kinesiology / Muscle testing / Diagnostic test

A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect

A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect

DocumentA double-blind, randomized study to assess the validity of Applied Kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect2014

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
167 - A study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Duration: 2007-02 - 2010-01
Researcher(s):
Stephan Schwartz, Ginette Nachman, William Frazer Morris
Institution(s): Laboratories for Fundamental Research, California (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Conference paper
Language: eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Nachman, G., Morris, W.
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Assessment tools / Healing

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-167.05
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
A double-blind, randomized study to assess the validity of Applied Kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect
Publication year: 2014
URL:
http://www.explorejournal.com/article/S1550-8307(13)00341-8/abstract
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Applied Kinesiology (AK) is a diagnostic technique widely used within the Integrative Medical community. In essence it posits that a question can be mentally held in a person’s mind, sometimes while they are holding a substance like a vitamin, or a food sample, and by measuring relative muscular weakness an answer as to whether the substance or the condition represented by the question is good for that person can be obtained. This AK is presumed to have a diagnostic capability. That being presumed this study asks: 1. Is there a difference in muscular strength when an individual holds a substance that is inimical to life processes (a poison solution), as compared to a substance that is essential for life (normal saline)? 2. Is this effect a transaction involving input from both the person being measured, and the kinesiologist doing the measurement, or is it only the person being measured? 3. As an extension of question 2, is the result the same when different kinesiologists take the measurement, or when no kinesiologist is involved? 4. Does belief, expectation, gender, or time cognition play a role in determining response? To answer these questions, which would help to define the parameters of the AK process, 51 participants were tested during three trials each, first by one kinesiologist, then by another and, finally, with no kinesiologist present by grip strength indicated using a hand dynamometer. Grip strength being a self-administered AK test of relative muscular strength. For each trial a pair of randomly numbered sealed vials, each pair in a randomly numbered plastic bag, were used as the objects of the trial. In each bag one vial contained saline solution while the other was filled with a slightly smaller amount of saline solution to which had been added ionic hydroxlamine hydrochloride (NH3OH)+, producing a toxic solution of 9mg/ml. Each trial consisted of a separate muscle test for each vial. All present at the trials were blind as to which vial contained the toxin. And all who prepared the vials were blind to the trials. The force used by the kinesiologists in each of their trials was measured via a pressure pad system. The hand dynamometer trials were conducted with no kinesiologist present. Results: Of the 151 sets of trials the toxic vial was identified correctly in 80 of them (53%), resulting in a one-tailed exact binomial p-value of 0.258. Results for two of the kinesiologists were almost exactly at chance. For the third kinesiologist there was a one-tailed exact binomial p-value of 0.18 (unadjusted for multiple testing). Results for the dynamometer were also almost exactly at chance. Testing whether there was a significant difference in proportions for whom the AK test worked based on belief about whether it would work resulted in non-significant chi-square values of 0.6 (p = 0.439) for the trials with one kinesiologist, and 2.222 (p = 0.136) for the hand dynamometer trials. The final variable examined was gender. While there was no significant difference in performance for males and females for the trials of the male kinesiologist or the hand dynamometer, the combined data for the two female kinesiologists did reveal a difference. Of the 33 sessions with females, only 15 were successful (45%) while for the 18 sessions with males, 14 were successful (78%) resulting in a chi-square statistic of 4.96, p = 0.026. However, given all of the chi-square tests performed in this section, the results must be interpreted with caution because of multiple testing. Results indicate belief in whether or not the AK test will work was not significantly related to whether or not it actually did work. A chi-square test of the relationship between time perception and correct vial choice showed no significant relationships. The chi-square statistic for the relationship using the hand dynamometer data was 0.927, p-value = 0.629. The data in this study, particularly when seen in the larger context of a review of the literature from the AK field itself by Klinkoski and Leboeuf (1990), which considered 50 papers published between 1981 and 1987 by the International College of Applied Kinesiology, and the survey by Hall, Lewith, Brien, and Little (2008), using standard evaluation criteria (QUADAS, STARD, JADAD and CONSORT), for research methodology, as well as six prior non-clinical studies, by Radin (1984), Quintanar and Hill (1988), Braud (1989), Arnett, Friedenberg, and Kendler (1999), Ludtke (2001), and Kendler and Keating (2003), all together suggest: The research published by the Applied Kinesiology field itself is not to be relied upon, and in the experimental studies that do meet accepted standards of science Applied Kinesiology has not demonstrated that it is a useful or reliable diagnostic tool upon which health decisions can be based.
Accessibility: Document exist in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Schwartz, S. A.
Secondary author(s):
Utts, J., Spottiswoode, J., Shade, C., Tully, L., Morris, W., Nachman, G.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Schwartz, S. A., Utts, J., Spottiswoode, J., Shade, C., Tully, L., Morris, W., & Nachman, G. (2014). A double-blind, randomized study to assess the validity of Applied Kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 10(2), 99-108. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2013.12.002
2-year Impact Factor: 1.000|2014
Times cited: 6|2020-03-11
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q3
Keywords: Applied kinesiology / Muscle testing / Diagnostic test

A double-blind, randomized study to assess the validity of Applied Kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect

A double-blind, randomized study to assess the validity of Applied Kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect