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File169 - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise2009-092011-01

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
169 - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise
Duration: 2009-09 - 2011-01
Researcher(s):
Christine Simmonds-Moore
Institution(s): Liverpool Hope University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Personality factors

DocumentFinal report - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
169 - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise
Duration: 2009-09 - 2011-01
Researcher(s):
Christine Simmonds-Moore
Institution(s): Liverpool Hope University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Personality factors

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
Final report - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa16906_29102013.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
95 participants (believers and skeptics) took part in a study comprising a series of 4 visual noise and 4 auditory noise (pink noise) trials. Each participant was exposed to 2 degraded stimuli, 1 ESP stimulus and 1 random trial for each sense. Believers and skeptics did not differ in the number of guesses made regarding target identity. However, believers’ guesses were generally more elaborate and complex; their reaction times to decide that something was present (for the auditory condition) were faster, they were more confident about their first guesses and made more misidentifications than skeptics. Overall, more guesses and misidentifications were made for the visual condition.
Believers and skeptics did not differ in their overt detection of weak visual or auditory stimuli. Overall, reaction times were faster when a degraded stimulus was present compared to the random condition. For judge 1, there was a trend toward a significant ESP effect for the auditory condition (z= 1.93, p =.053) and a suggestive effect for the visual condition (z= 1.65, p =.099). For judge 2, there were no significant effects for either sense. For the auditory sense, more guesses were made for the psi than the random conditions. Believers did not differ significantly from skeptics in terms of ESP scoring.
By exploring schizotypy, this study also found evidence for different types of believer and disbeliever; a healthy and less healthy believer and an equivalent healthy and less healthy skeptic. There were no differences between the two different types of believer on ESP scoring.
Overall, the Magical Ideation scale did not correlate with ESP scoring. However among skeptics, there was a significant negative correlation with auditory ESP.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
2
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Paranormal disbelief / Schizotypy / Perceptual biases / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Magical ideation

Final report - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise

Final report - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise

DocumentExploring how schizotypy and paranormal belief influence the tendency to make the type I error and the detection of degraded and paranormal stimuli in random noise2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
169 - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise
Duration: 2009-09 - 2011-01
Researcher(s):
Christine Simmonds-Moore
Institution(s): Liverpool Hope University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Personality factors

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
Exploring how schizotypy and paranormal belief influence the tendency to make the type I error and the detection of degraded and paranormal stimuli in random noise
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://www.parapsych.org/uploaded_files/pdfs/00/00/00/00/02/2010_pa_convention_abstracts_and_program.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Subjective paranormal experiences are often experienced against a random backdrop; for example, reading the tea leaves to predict the future, scrying, and hearing “electronic voice phenomena” of purported discarnate spirits amid static noise. To date, the dominant framework for understanding paranormal cognition is that believers in the paranormal and those prone to experiencing paranormal/anomalous phenomena (in particular, those who score high on positive schizotypy) are biased toward the detection of signals or patterns in randomness where none are there. This is known as apothenia or the tendency to make a Type I error (c.f., Brugger, 2001), which results in seeing things that are not actually there (hallucinations), making connections between random events and a proneness to find meaning and significance in random events.
Prior research does indicate that believers and those who are prone to anomalous experiences are more likely to perceive meaningful visual and auditory stimuli amid random noise (where none are presented) (e.g., Feelgood & Rantzen, 1994; Young, Bentall, Slade & Dewey, 1987). In addition, research suggests that under perceptually ambiguous situations (where a stimulus is present but degraded), believers are more prone to rapid and over confident decisions about what is hidden amid noise which are less likely to be updated in the light of new information (e.g., Blackmore & Moore, 1994).
Research also indicates that those who score high on positive schizotypy (and related variables) may actually be particularly efficient at the perception of subliminal or weak stimuli (Crawley, French, & Yesson, 2002; Evans, 1997). However, little research has systematically explored individual differences in the perception of weak or degraded stimuli presented amid random noise.
Recent research in parapsychology has indicated that sensory noise may be conducive to performance at an extrasensory perception task. In addition, although findings are mixed, prior research suggests that positive schizotypy may relate to psi performance. Where schizotypy is considered multidimensionally and cluster analyzed, two profiles of positive schizotypy emerge; one which seems to be associated with good mental health, whilst the other is associated with poorer mental health. Interestingly, recent research (Holt & Simmonds-Moore, 2008) found that the healthy schizotypy cluster was the only group to perform significantly on an attention-based psi task.
This study aimed to explore several questions pertinent to the perception/detection of “weak stimuli” (including psi and degraded stimuli) which may or may not be hidden amid random visual and auditory noise. The project will extend the existing literature by exploring three possibilities for subjective paranormal experiences among believers in the paranormal/positive schizotypes: 1) Psi experiences are derived from a greater propensity to detect psi; 2) Psi experiences are derived from a greater predisposition to detect subliminal or weak stimuli; and 3) Psychic experiences are better explained by the human tendency to find meaning in randomness, apothenia or the Type I error (e.g., Brugger, 2001).
This project is informed by research from the hallucination literature (e.g., see Bentall, 1990), the paranormal belief literature (Blackmore & Moore, 1994, Rogers, & Prophet, 2008), the psychotherapy literature (e.g., the use of the Rorschach), the perception without awareness literature (e.g., see Merikle, Smilek & Eastwood, 2001), research on Electronic Voice Phenomena (e.g., see Barušs, 2001) and more recently, the psi literature (e.g., Simmonds & Fox, 2004).
Despite the proposal that the perceptual biases are understood to reflect a continuum (Brugger, 2001), there is currently little research which explores the psychology of the disbeliever. As such, this study will explore the possibility that disbelievers might process information in an opposite manner to that of believers, and be more likely to make the Type II error.
Approximately 40 believers and 40 disbelievers were preselected to participate in a study on individual differences and pattern detection. All potential participants completed a questionnaire battery and were sent an information sheet which gave a detailed description of the study. Participants then came into the laboratory to take part in a computerized study (written in EPRIME2). The experimenter described the study and invited questions from the participant. Participants then undertook a sound check (a very basic hearing test), saw an example of visual noise, heard an example of pink noise, listened to relaxation music and then completed eight trials; four for visual and four for the auditory sense. Each trial consisted of 8 screens of random pixilation for the visual condition and eight trials of 30-second blocks of pink noise for the auditory condition. Each participant was exposed to two weak stimuli targets, one ESP target and one trial with no targets (in counterbalanced order across all sessions). Weak stimuli comprised a series of degraded pictures or spoken words spliced into pink noise (these gradually became clearer across the eight trials). Participants were asked to note down vague impressions, thoughts and feelings on note sheets (one per trial), and to press a key on the computer if and when they could identify something in the visual or auditory noise. If they pressed enter, they were asked to type in what they saw/heard and were then prompted for a confidence rating on what they saw or heard. They were asked to press the button as many times as they saw something different or changed their minds about their confidence during the trial.
At the end of the visual block of trials, each participant was shown the target pictures they were exposed to and told whether they were weak stimuli or psi targets. At the end of the auditory block, each participant was played the auditory targets they were exposed to and told whether they were weak stimuli or psi targets.
Psi performance will be ascertained by two independent judges rating the similarity of imagery and guesses in the psi trials to four possible targets (targets were organized into orthogonal sets of four prior to the start of this experiment. Clusters of schizotypy and paranormal belief and disbelief will be compared on psi scoring and weak stimuli detection. Confidence and the number of button presses per trial will also be compared between believers and disbelievers and different types of schizotypy.
Qualitative analysis will be undertaken to explore the types of imagery people experience amid random visual and auditory noise (irrespective of the existence of a target). Differences will be explored between believers and disbelievers.
Post hoc analyses will enable further understanding of the psychology of the disbeliever, for instance, in terms of their anomalous experiences and their scoring on positive schizotypy measures.
By exploring perceptual and cognitive biases and paranormal and perception of weak stimuli in a within participants study, it will be possible to shed more light on the nature and etiology of believing in and experiencing paranormal phenomena and disbelieving in or not experiencing paranormal phenomena.
Accessibility: Document exists in file (Full paper)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Notes:
Research Brief presented at the 53rd Annual convention of the Parapsychological Association
Author: Simmonds-Moore, C.
Document type:
Abstract book
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Simmonds-Moore, C. (2010). Exploring how schizotypy and paranormal belief influence the tendency to make the type I error and the detection of degraded and paranormal stimuli in random noise. In In N. Holt (Ed.), Abstracts of presented papers: The Parapsychological Association 53rd Annual Convention (pp. 39-40). Paris, France: Parapsychological Association.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Paranormal disbelief / Schizotypy / Perceptual biases / Apothenia

Full paper

Full paper

Abstract

Abstract

DocumentExploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
169 - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise
Duration: 2009-09 - 2011-01
Researcher(s):
Christine Simmonds-Moore
Institution(s): Liverpool Hope University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Personality factors

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bial%20Sonhos%20Miolo_Total%20Bolsas.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVES:
To explore the perceptual biases (Type I and Type II errors) associated with paranormal belief and disbelief.
METHODS:
Ninety five self-defined believers and skeptics completed a questionnaire battery consisting of the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale, the Parapsychological experiences subscale of The Assessment Schedule for Altered States of Consciousness, the short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences and the Magical Ideation Scale. Each took part in a computerized experiment consisting of one visual and one auditory block of trials, each consisting of a psi trial, two weak stimuli trials and one random trial (8 trials each). For each trial, participants were asked to make general notes and sketches on general impressions, thoughts and feelings and press a button on the computer if and when they could identify something amid visual or auditory noise.
RESULTS:
More guesses were made for the visual condition. Believers and skeptics did not differ in the number of guesses made. There were differences in the qualitative nature of guesses, the speed at which guesses were made (for the auditory condition), confidence about guesses and the number of misidentifications made. Believers and skeptics did not differ in their ability to overtly detect weak visual or auditory stimuli or in ESP performance. There were trends toward, but no significant ESP effects. Schizotypy (OLIFE) scoring indicated that there is a healthy and less healthy type of believer and a healthy and less healthy type of skeptic. There were no differences between the two types of believer on ESP scoring. The Magical Ideation scale did not correlate with ESP.
CONCLUSIONS:
There is some evidence that believing in the paranormal is associated with making the type I error. However, skeptics also perceive stimuli where none are present, particularly for the visual sense.
DISCUSSION:
Given that skeptics and believers do not differ in their detection of weak stimuli (or detection of a psi stimulus), the notion that perceptual biases are ‘errors’ could be challenged.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Simmonds-Moore, C. (2012). Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of Fundação Bial (p. 12/63). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Paranormal belief / Paranormal disbelief / Schizotypy / Perceptual biases / Extrasensory perception (ESP)

Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise

Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise

DocumentExploring the perceptual biases associated with believing and disbelieving in paranormal phenomena2014

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
169 - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise
Duration: 2009-09 - 2011-01
Researcher(s):
Christine Simmonds-Moore
Institution(s): Liverpool Hope University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Personality factors

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
Exploring the perceptual biases associated with believing and disbelieving in paranormal phenomena
Publication year: 2014
URL:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810014000907
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Ninety-five participants (32 believers, 30 disbelievers and 33 neutral believers in the paranormal) participated in an experiment comprising one visual and one auditory block of trials. Each block included one ESP, two degraded stimuli and one random trial. Each trial included 8 screens or epochs of “random” noise. Participants entered a guess if they perceived a stimulus or changed their mind about stimulus identity, rated guesses for confidence and made notes during each trial. Believers and disbelievers did not differ in the number of guesses made, or in their ability to detect degraded stimuli. Believers displayed a trend toward making faster guesses for some conditions and significantly higher confidence and more misidentifications concerning guesses than disbelievers. Guesses, misidentifications and faster response latencies were generally more likely in the visual than auditory conditions. ESP performance was no different from chance. ESP performance did not differ between belief groups or sensory modalities.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Percentiles:
7|2022-03-19
Reference:
Simmonds-Moore, C. (2014). Exploring the perceptual biases associated with believing and disbelieving in paranormal phenomena. Consciousness and Cognition, 28, 30-46. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2014.06.004
2-year Impact Factor: 1.941|2014
Times cited: 6|2022-05-20
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q3
Keywords: Paranormal belief / Skepticism / Type I error / Type II error / Apophenia / Degraded stimuli / Extrasensory perception / Creativity / Implicit detection system