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File032 - Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?2009-042012-02

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
032 - Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?
Duration: 2009-04 - 2012-02
Researcher(s):
Jose Luis Perez Velazquez, Richard Wennberg, Luis Garcia Dominguez
Institution(s): Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Articles
Language: eng
Author:
Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Secondary author(s):
Wennberg, R., Garcia Dominguez, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Decision-making / Brain structure and function

DocumentFinal report - Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
032 - Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?
Duration: 2009-04 - 2012-02
Researcher(s):
Jose Luis Perez Velazquez, Richard Wennberg, Luis Garcia Dominguez
Institution(s): Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Articles
Language: eng
Author:
Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Secondary author(s):
Wennberg, R., Garcia Dominguez, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Decision-making / Brain structure and function

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
Final report - Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa3208_21022014.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
A fundamental topic in neuroscience is the nature of “free will” and how it is derived from neurophysiological processes. In this study, we investigate decision-making by examining the differences in brain activity underlying free and forced behaviours using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from subjects performing button pressing tasks that require them to exercise their choice by pushing one of two buttons in response to various cuing methods. The greatest ability to discriminate (>80% classification accuracy) free and forced trials came from MEG sensors located over the primary sensory cortices specific for the modality used to cue each trial: either visual (occipital) or auditory (left temporal), and minor non-localized differences for trials that were pre-specified. These findings suggest that primary sensory areas play a crucial part of the information processing steps organizing the production of free and forced behaviours, and, contrary to the current conceptualisation, that fronto-parietal processes may not be the principal determinants of these actions.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Secondary author(s):
Wennberg, R., Garcia Dominguez, L.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
1
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Neurophysiology / Free will / Magnetoencephalography / Decision-making

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DocumentDistinct dynamical patterns that distinguish willed and forced actions2011

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
032 - Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?
Duration: 2009-04 - 2012-02
Researcher(s):
Jose Luis Perez Velazquez, Richard Wennberg, Luis Garcia Dominguez
Institution(s): Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Articles
Language: eng
Author:
Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Secondary author(s):
Wennberg, R., Garcia Dominguez, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Decision-making / Brain structure and function

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
Distinct dynamical patterns that distinguish willed and forced actions
Publication year: 2011
URL:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045496/
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
The neural pathways for generating willed actions have been increasingly investigated since the famous pioneering work by Benjamin Libet on the nature of free will. To better understand what differentiates the brain states underlying willed and forced behaviours, we performed a study of chosen and forced actions over a binary choice scenario. Magnetoencephalography recordings were obtained from six subjects during a simple task in which the subject presses a button with the left or right finger in response to a cue that either (1) specifies the finger with which the button should be pressed or (2) instructs the subject to press a button with a finger of their own choosing. Three independent analyses were performed to investigate the dynamical patterns of neural activity supporting willed and forced behaviours during the preparatory period preceding a button press. Each analysis offered similar findings in the temporal and spatial domains and in particular, a high accuracy in the classification of single trials was obtained around 200 ms after cue presentation with an overall average of 82%. During this period, the majority of the discriminatory power comes from differential neural processes observed bilaterally in the parietal lobes, as well as some differences in occipital and temporal lobes, suggesting a contribution of these regions to willed and forced behaviours.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Garcia Dominguez, L.
Secondary author(s):
Kostelecki, W., Wennberg, R., Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Percentiles:
7|2022-03-19
Reference:
Garcia Dominguez, L., Kostelecki, W., Wennberg, R., Perez-Velazquez, J. (2011). Distinct dynamical patterns that distinguish willed and forced actions. Cognitive Neurodynamics, 5(1), 67-76. doi: 10.1007/s11571-010-9140-y
2-year Impact Factor: 0.985|2011
Times cited: 6|2022-05-20
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q4
Keywords: Magnetoencephalography / Single-trial analysis / Free will / Fischer criterion / Common spatial patterns

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DocumentSingle trial classification of magnetoencephalographic recordings using granger causality2011

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
032 - Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?
Duration: 2009-04 - 2012-02
Researcher(s):
Jose Luis Perez Velazquez, Richard Wennberg, Luis Garcia Dominguez
Institution(s): Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Articles
Language: eng
Author:
Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Secondary author(s):
Wennberg, R., Garcia Dominguez, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Decision-making / Brain structure and function

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
Single trial classification of magnetoencephalographic recordings using granger causality
Publication year: 2011
URL:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21600926
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
The use of Granger causality (GC) for studying dependencies in neuroimaging data has recently been gaining popularity. Several frameworks exist for applying GC to neurophysiological questions but many rely heavily on specific statistical assumptions regarding autoregressive (AR) models for hypothesis testing. Since it is often difficult to satisfy these assumptions in practical settings, this study proposes an alternative statistical methodology based on the classification of individual trials of data. Instead of testing for significance using statistics based on estimated AR models or prediction errors, hypotheses were tested by determining whether or not individual magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording segments belonging to either of two experimental conditions can be successfully classified using features derived from AR and GC concepts. Using this novel approach, we show that bivariate temporal GC can be used to distinguish button presses based on whether they were experimentally forced or free. Additionally, the methodology was used to determine useful parameter settings for various steps of the analysis and this revealed surprising insight into several aspects of AR and GC analysis which, previously, could not be obtained in a comparable manner. A final mean accuracy of 79.2% was achieved for classifying forced and free button presses for 6 subjects suggesting that classification using GC features is a viable option for studying MEG signals and useful for evaluating the effectiveness of parameter variations in GC analysis.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Kostelecki, W.
Secondary author(s):
Garcia Dominguez, L., Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Percentiles:
7|2022-03-19
Reference:
Kostelecki, W., Garcia Dominguez, L., Perez-Velazquez, J. (2011). Single trial classification of magnetoencephalographic recordings using Granger causality. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 199(2), 183-191. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2011.04.032
2-year Impact Factor: 1.980|2011
Times cited: 3|2022-05-20
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q3
Keywords: Granger causality / Autoregression models / Classification / Magnetoencephalography / Short trials

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DocumentPatterns of brain activity distinguishing free and forced actions: contribution from sensory cortices2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
032 - Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?
Duration: 2009-04 - 2012-02
Researcher(s):
Jose Luis Perez Velazquez, Richard Wennberg, Luis Garcia Dominguez
Institution(s): Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Articles
Language: eng
Author:
Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Secondary author(s):
Wennberg, R., Garcia Dominguez, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Decision-making / Brain structure and function

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
Patterns of brain activity distinguishing free and forced actions: contribution from sensory cortices
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23060760
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
The neural basis of decision-making is extremely complex due to the large number of factors that contribute to the outcome of even the most basic actions as well as the range of appropriate responses within many behavioral contexts. To better understand the neural processes underlying basic forms of decision-making, this study utilized an experiment that required a choice about whether to press a button with the right or left hand. These instances of decision-making were compared to identical button presses that were experimentally specified rather than selected by the subject. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to record neural activity during these-what are being termed-free and forced actions and differences in the MEG signal between these two conditions were attributed to the distinct forms of neural activity required to carry out the two types of actions. To produce instances of free and forced behavior, cued button-pressing experiments were performed that use visual, aural, and memorized cues to instruct experimental subjects of the expected outcome of individual trials. Classification analysis of the trials revealed that cortical regions that allowed for the most accurate classification of free and forced actions primarily handle sensory input for the modality used to cue the trials: occipital cortex for visually cued trials, temporal cortex for aurally cued trials, and minor non-localized differences in MEG activity for trials initiated from memory. The differential roles of visual and auditory sensory cortices during free and forced actions provided insight into the neural processing steps that were engaged to initiate cued actions. Specifically, it suggested that detectable differences exist in the activity of sensory cortices and their target sites when subjects performed free and forced actions in response to sensory cues.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Kostelecki, W.
Secondary author(s):
Mei, Y., Garcia Dominguez, L., Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Kostelecki, W., Mei, Y., Garcia Dominguez L, & Pérez Velázquez, J. L. (2012). Patterns of brain activity distinguishing free and forced actions: contribution from sensory cortices. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6(84), 1-7. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2012.00084
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Decision-making / Free will / Granger causality / Magnetoencephalography / Single-trial classification

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DocumentThe biophysical bases of will-less behaviors2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
032 - Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?
Duration: 2009-04 - 2012-02
Researcher(s):
Jose Luis Perez Velazquez, Richard Wennberg, Luis Garcia Dominguez
Institution(s): Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Articles
Language: eng
Author:
Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Secondary author(s):
Wennberg, R., Garcia Dominguez, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Decision-making / Brain structure and function

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032.05
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
The biophysical bases of will-less behaviors
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3478585/
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Are there distinctions at the neurophysiological level that correlate with voluntary and involuntary actions? Whereas the wide variety of involuntary behaviors (and here mostly the deviant or pathological ones will be considered) will necessarily be represented at some biophysical level in nervous system activity–for after all those cellular activity patterns manifest themselves as behaviors and thus there will be a multiplicity of them–there could be some general tendencies to be discerned amongst that assortment. Collecting observations derived from neurophysiological activity associated with several pathological conditions characterized by presenting will-less actions such as Parkinson's disease, seizures, alien hand syndrome and tics, it is proposed that a general neurophysiologic tendency of brain activity that correlates with involuntary actions is higher than normal synchrony in specific brain cell networks, depending upon the behavior in question. Wilful, considered normal behavior, depends on precise coordination of the collective activity in cell ensembles that may be lost, or diminished, when there are tendencies toward more than normal or aberrant synchronization of cellular activity. Hence, rapid fluctuations in synchrony is associated with normal actions and cognition while less variability in brain recordings particularly with regards to synchronization could be a signature of unconscious and deviant behaviors in general.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Perez Velazquez, J. L. (2012). The biophysical bases of will-less behaviors. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6(98), 1-10. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2012.00098
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Brain synchrony / Coherence / Neurophysics / Free will / Volition / Excitability / Psychiatry / Brain coordination dynamics

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DocumentConscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
032 - Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?
Duration: 2009-04 - 2012-02
Researcher(s):
Jose Luis Perez Velazquez, Richard Wennberg, Luis Garcia Dominguez
Institution(s): Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Articles
Language: eng
Author:
Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Secondary author(s):
Wennberg, R., Garcia Dominguez, L.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Cognitive processes / Decision-making / Brain structure and function

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-032.06
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 8/2008
Title:
Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain?
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bial%20Sonhos%20Miolo_Total%20Bolsas.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Objectives: A fundamental topic in neuroscience is the nature of “free will” and how it is derived
from neurophysiological processes. In this study, we investigate decision-making by examining the
differences in brain activity underlying free and forced behaviours using magnetoencephalographic
(MEG) recordings from subjects performing button pressing tasks that require them to exercise
their choice by pushing one of two buttons in response to various cuing methods.
Methods: MEG recordings were taken from participants who either act on a choice by pushing one
of two buttons when cued to do so, or pushing one particular button in response to a specific
instruction. The instructions for the types of button press were supplied using visual or verbal cues
that were provided in real time, or using pre-specified cues that instructed the subject to press
buttons in the order of a memorized sequence or to freely press buttons for a period of time.
Analysis of the directionality of coupling between brain areas (but we work at the sensor level) was
assessed using Granger causality.
Results & Discussion: The greatest ability to discriminate (>80% classification accuracy) free and
forced trials came from MEG sensors located over the primary sensory cortices specific for the
modality used to cue each trial: either visual (occipital) or auditory (left temporal), and minor nonlocalized
differences for trials that were pre-specified.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that primary sensory areas play a crucial part of the
information processing steps organizing the production of free and forced behaviours, and that,
contrary to the current conceptualisation, fronto-parietal processes may not be the principal
determinants of these actions.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Perez Velazquez, J. L.
Secondary author(s):
Wennberg, R., Garcia Dominguez, L.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Perez Velazquez, J.L., Wennberg, R., & Garcia Dominguez, L. (2012). Conscious will and voluntary actions: is there a last ventriloquist in the brain? In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of Fundação Bial (p. 17/63). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Choice-making / Free will / Magnetoencephalography / Single-trial classification

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