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File127 - Prefrontal control of impulsive action2009-022011-03

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
127 - Prefrontal control of impulsive action
Duration: 2009-02 - 2011-03
Researcher(s):
Masayoshi Murakami, Zachary F. Mainen
Institution(s): Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Poster
Language: eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Mainen, Z.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes

DocumentFinal report - Prefrontal control of impulsive action2011

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
127 - Prefrontal control of impulsive action
Duration: 2009-02 - 2011-03
Researcher(s):
Masayoshi Murakami, Zachary F. Mainen
Institution(s): Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Poster
Language: eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Mainen, Z.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127.01
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
Final report - Prefrontal control of impulsive action
Publication year: 2011
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bolsa127-08_03012014.pdf
Abstract/Results: RESULTS:
Impulse control - withholding short term benefits to achieve longer term goals - is an important facet of goal-directed behavior. Frontal cortex has been hypothesized to exert top-down control of impulsive actions. We investigated neural correlates of impulse control in frontal cortical areas.
In an impulse control task, rats interacted with a waiting port and a reward port. While waiting in the waiting port, size of the reward available at the reward port switched from small to big following a signaled but unpredictable interval. The waiting time of the rats varied randomly across trials. Through multiple single neuron recordings from the frontal cortical areas, we found a neural activity which predicts the waiting time of the rat. There were 20% of predictive neurons in premotor area of frontal cortex, but close to chance level (7%) in the medial prefrontal cortex. A different analysis revealed that a subpopulation of neurons in the premotor area showed ramping activity during the waiting, which reached the same firing rate just before the leaving. The rate of ramping activity was negatively correlated with the waiting time in a majority of ramping neurons. When we tested the neural activity in 2 different impulse control tasks requiring different actions, it is suggested that the waiting time predictive activity in the premotor area does not represent action-non-specific signal such as an impulse control signal, but represents action-specific signal, such as the timing of a particular action. These results suggest an involvement of premotor cortex neurons in deciding the timing of action in the context of impulse control task.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Mainen, Z.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
1
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Impulse control / Frontal cortex / Neural correlates

Novo ficheiro

Novo ficheiro

DocumentRole of medial prefrontal cortex and secondary motor cortex withholding impulsive action2009

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
127 - Prefrontal control of impulsive action
Duration: 2009-02 - 2011-03
Researcher(s):
Masayoshi Murakami, Zachary F. Mainen
Institution(s): Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Poster
Language: eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Mainen, Z.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127.02
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
Role of medial prefrontal cortex and secondary motor cortex withholding impulsive action
Publication year: 2009
URL:
http://www.abstractsonline.com/Plan/ViewAbstract.aspx?sKey=3ceb32c6-91d1-4e8f-a2bc-f298abc69dfc&cKey=8c2eddbb-1da1-4107-844d-e76587a71a59&mKey=%7b081F7976-E4CD-4F3D-A0AF-E8387992A658%7d
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Impulse control - withholding short term actions to achieve longer term goals - is an important facet of goal-directed behavior. Frontal cortex has been hypothesized to exert top-down inhibition of impulsive actions, but little is known about the nature of the neural signals responsible for such control. To address these questions, we have developed a novel impulse control task in rats and begun to investigate the causal involvement and neural correlates of frontal cortical areas.
In the impulse control task, subjects interact with a waiting port and a reward port. While waiting, two tones are generated, the first at a fixed short delay (0.4 s) and the second at a longer random delay (exponentially-distributed, min. 0.7 s). Responses after the first tone garner a reward, but the amount is 3-4 times larger after the second tone. A minimum trial onset interval was set so that waiting time did not affect trial rate. Thus, to maximize reward, subjects must withhold responding to the first tone and respond to the second.
This task produces three trial types: “failure” to wait for the first tone, “impatient” responses after the first tone and “patient” responses after the second tone. The delay of the second tone was titrated to achieve 30% patient responses (approx. 2 s mean). The timing of impatient responses varied randomly from trial to trial, approximating the distribution of second tone delays.
First, to test for areas that may be causally involved in impulse control, we infused muscimol locally to inactivate medial and dorsomedial frontal cortex (mPFC and M2). Inactivation of regions within these areas indeed led to a decrease in the waiting time and a decrease in the patient trials.
Second, to characterize neural signals related to impulse control, we made single-unit recordings from mPFC and M2 neurons, testing for signals that correlated on a trial-by-trial basis with waiting time on impatient trials. Approximately 12% of neurons in dorsomedial frontal cortex (28/238 neurons) showed activity that correlated with and predicted waiting time. We observed nearly equal proportions of positive and negative correlations.
Waiting-predictive neurons showed a variety of time courses of activity. The most frequent one was a phasic signal locked to waiting-port entry, but other neurons showed ramping activity peaking at waiting-port exit. Waiting correlated activity sometimes even occurred a few seconds before waiting port entry.
These results establish a task suitable for studying impulse control, suggest the involvement of dorsomedial frontal cortex in this function, and reveal properties of single neural activity that may be responsible for top-down control of impulsive action.
Accessibility: Document exists in file (poster)
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Costa, G., Vicente, M., Mainen, Z.
Document type:
Online abstract
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Murakami, M., Costa, G., Vicente, M., & Mainen, Z. (2009). Role of medial prefrontal cortex and secondary motor cortex withholding impulsive action. Program No. 281.10/EE116. 2009 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Chicago, IL: Society for Neuroscience, 2009. Online.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Impulsivity / Decision-making / Brain activity

Novo ficheiro

Novo ficheiro

DocumentPrefrontal control of impulsive action2012

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
127 - Prefrontal control of impulsive action
Duration: 2009-02 - 2011-03
Researcher(s):
Masayoshi Murakami, Zachary F. Mainen
Institution(s): Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Poster
Language: eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Mainen, Z.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127.03
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
Prefrontal control of impulsive action
Publication year: 2012
URL:
http://www.bial.com/imagem/Bial%20Sonhos%20Miolo_Total%20Bolsas.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Objectives: Impulse control - withholding short term benefits to achieve longer term goals - is an
important facet of goal-directed behavior. Frontal cortex has been hypothesized to exert top-down
control of impulsive actions. Some of the neural substrates of decisions between immediate and
delayed rewards are identified, including the brain systems involved and properties of the neural
representations. Comparatively little is known about decisions to terminate waiting during a delay.
In particular, in a decision to give up, the time is determined by an internal battle between the
“will” to wait and the “temptation” to give up. What neural processes underlie the timing of such
acts?
Methods: We devised an impulse control task in which rats interacted with a waiting port and a
reward port. While waiting in the waiting port, size of the reward available at the reward port
switched from small to big following a signaled but unpredictable interval. In order to record
spiking activity from multiple neurons, we implanted movable tetrode arrays into the frontal
cortex of rats trained for the impulse control task.
Results: The waiting time of the rats in our impulse control task varied randomly across trials. This
enabled us to search for single-neuron correlate for impulse control. Through multiple single-unit
recordings from the frontal cortical areas, we found neurons whose activity showed transient
correlation with the waiting time. There were 20% of such waiting time predictive neurons in
secondary motor area (M2) of frontal cortex, but close to chance level (7%) in the medial
prefrontal cortex. The predictive neurons might contribute to bias the waiting time toward longer
waiting or shorter waiting. A different analysis revealed that a subpopulation of neurons in the
area M2 showed ramping activity during the waiting, which reached the same firing rate just
before the leaving. The rate of ramping activity was negatively correlated with the waiting time in
a majority of ramping neurons. This type of activity is proposed to serve as an internal trigger for
actions. When we tested the neural activity in 2 different impulse control tasks requiring different
actions, most of neurons showed the predictive activity in only one type of actions, suggesting that
the waiting time predictive activity does not represent action-non-specific signal such as an
impulse control signal, but represents action-specific signal, such as the timing of a particular
action.
Conclusions: These results suggest an involvement of M2 neurons in deciding the timing of action
in the context of impulse control task.
Discussions: Our finding suggests that the waiting time predictive neurons represent action timing
signal rather than abstract signal, such as a value of options or internal state of the animal. But
such abstract signals might be encoded in prefrontal cortical areas, such as the orbitofrontal
cortex, which sends signal to the secondary motor cortex.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Mainen, Z.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Murakami, M., & Mainen, Z. (2012). Prefrontal control of impulsive action. In Aquém e além do cérebro. Behind and beyond the brain. Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of Fundação Bial (pp. 40-41/63). Porto: Fundação Bial.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) / Secondary motor cortex / Single-unit recordings / Behavior / Impulse control

Novo ficheiro

Novo ficheiro

DocumentNeural substrates of withholding impulsive actions in rat frontal cortex2010

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
127 - Prefrontal control of impulsive action
Duration: 2009-02 - 2011-03
Researcher(s):
Masayoshi Murakami, Zachary F. Mainen
Institution(s): Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Poster
Language: eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Mainen, Z.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
Neural substrates of withholding impulsive actions in rat frontal cortex
Publication year: 2010
URL:
http://fens2010.neurosciences.asso.fr/abstracts/R6/A176_42.html
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Withholding impulsive actions for short term gains to achieve longer term goals is an important facet of goal-directed behavior. The frontal cortex has been hypothesized to exert top-down inhibition of impulsive actions, but little is known about the nature of the neural signals responsible for such control. To address this question, we have developed a novel impulse control task in rats and begun to investigate the neural signals of frontal cortical areas, namely medial frontal cortex (MFC) and secondary motor cortex (M2), during the task.
In the impulse control task, subjects interact with a waiting port and a reward port. While waiting, two tones are generated, the first at a fixed short delay (0.4 s) and the second at a longer random delay (exponentially-distributed, min. 0.7 s, approx. 2s mean). Responses after the first tone garner a reward, but the amount is 3-4 times larger after the second tone. For a given set of reward amounts and delays, the time a rat is willing to wait varies randomly from trial to trial, approximating the distribution of second tone delays.
To characterize neural signals related to impulse control, we made single-unit recordings from MFC and M2 neurons, testing for signals that correlated on a trial-by-trial basis with waiting time. While approximately 20% of neurons in M2 (109/548 neurons) showed activity that correlated with and predicted waiting time, only 6.6% of MFC neurons (8/122 neurons) showed such a predictive activity. Waiting-predictive neurons in M2 showed a variety of time courses of activity. The most frequent one was a phasic signal locked to waiting-port entry, but other neurons showed ramping activity peaking at waiting-port exit.
To test whether the predictive activity in M2 is specific to waiting action or not, we compared the activity during two impulse control tasks which require different actions for waiting, nose-poke for one task and lever-press for the other. Most of the predictive signals are specific to one type of waiting, which suggests the action specificity of the predictive signal.
These results establish a task suitable for studying impulse control, reveal properties of single neuronal activity in frontal cortex during the task and suggest a role of M2 in planning timing of actions.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Vicente, M., Costa, G., Mainen, Z.
Document type:
Online abstract
Number of reproductions:
1
Reference:
Murakami, M., Vicente, M., Costa, G., & Mainen, Z. (2010). Neural substrates of withholding impulsive actions in rat frontal cortex. FENS Abstr., vol.5, 176.42
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Impulse control / Frontal cortex / Rat / Neural activity

DocumentNeural antecedents of self-initiated actions in secondary motor cortex2014

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
127 - Prefrontal control of impulsive action
Duration: 2009-02 - 2011-03
Researcher(s):
Masayoshi Murakami, Zachary F. Mainen
Institution(s): Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Poster
Language: eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Mainen, Z.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
Neural antecedents of self-initiated actions in secondary motor cortex
Publication year: 2014
URL:
http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v17/n11/full/nn.3826.html#access
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
The neural origins of spontaneous or self-initiated actions are not well understood and their interpretation is controversial. To address these issues, we used a task in which rats decide when to abort waiting for a delayed tone. We recorded neurons in the secondary motor cortex (M2) and interpreted our findings in light of an integration-to-bound decision model. A first population of M2 neurons ramped to a constant threshold at rates proportional to waiting time, strongly resembling integrator output. A second population, which we propose provide input to the integrator, fired in sequences and showed trial-to-trial rate fluctuations correlated with waiting times. An integration model fit to these data also quantitatively predicted the observed inter-neuronal correlations. Together, these results reinforce the generality of the integration-to-bound model of decision-making. These models identify the initial intention to act as the moment of threshold crossing while explaining how antecedent subthreshold neural activity can influence an action without implying a decision.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Vicente, M. I., Costa, G., Mainen, Z.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Percentiles:
4|2022-03-19
Reference:
Murakami, M., Vicente, M. I., Costa, G., & Mainen, Z. (2014). Neural antecedents of self-initiated actions in secondary motor cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 17(11), 1574–1582. doi: 10.1038/nn.3826
2-year Impact Factor: 16.095|2014
Times cited: 141|2022-05-20
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q1
Keywords: Decision

DocumentMore than just a "Motor": Recent surprises from the frontal cortex2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
127 - Prefrontal control of impulsive action
Duration: 2009-02 - 2011-03
Researcher(s):
Masayoshi Murakami, Zachary F. Mainen
Institution(s): Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Poster
Language: eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Mainen, Z.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127.05
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
More than just a "Motor": Recent surprises from the frontal cortex
Publication year: 2018
URL:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6209835/
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT
Motor and premotor cortices are crucial for the control of movements. However, we still know little about how these areas contribute to higher-order motor control, such as deciding which movements to make and when to make them. Here we focus on rodent studies and review recent findings, which suggest that-in addition to motor control-neurons in motor cortices play a role in sensory integration, behavioral strategizing, working memory, and decision-making. We suggest that these seemingly disparate functions may subserve an evolutionarily conserved role in sensorimotor cognition and that further study of rodent motor cortices could make a major contribution to our understanding of the evolution and function of the mammalian frontal cortex.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Ebbesen, C. L.
Secondary author(s):
Insanally, M. N., Kopec, C. D., Murakami, M., Saiki, A., Erlich, J. C.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Percentiles:
4|2022-03-19
Reference:
Ebbesen, C. L., Insanally, M. N., Kopec, C. D., Murakami, M., Saiki, A., & Erlich, J. C. (2018). More than just a "Motor": Recent surprises from the frontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 38(44), 9402-9413. doi:
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1671-18.2018
2-year Impact Factor: 6.074|2018
Times cited: 33|2022-05-20
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q1
Keywords: Action selection / Action timing / Active sensing / Decision-making / Frontal cortex / Motor control

More than just a "Motor": Recent surprises from the frontal cortex

More than just a "Motor": Recent surprises from the frontal cortex

DocumentDistinct sources of deterministic and stochastic components of action timing decisions in rodent frontal cortex2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
127 - Prefrontal control of impulsive action
Duration: 2009-02 - 2011-03
Researcher(s):
Masayoshi Murakami, Zachary F. Mainen
Institution(s): Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Final report
Poster
Language: eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Mainen, Z.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Brain structure and function / Cognitive processes

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-127.06
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 6/2008
Title:
Distinct sources of deterministic and stochastic components of action timing decisions in rodent frontal cortex
Publication year: 2017
URL:
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0896-6273(17)30397-5
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
The selection and timing of actions are subject to determinate influences such as sensory cues and internal state as well as to effectively stochastic variability. Although stochastic choice mechanisms are assumed by many theoretical models, their origin and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated this issue by studying how neural circuits in the frontal cortex determine action timingin rats-performing a waiting task. Electrophysiological recordings from two regions necessary for this behavior, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and secondarymotor cortex (M2), revealed an unexpected functional dissociation. Both areas encoded deterministic biases in action timing, but only M2 neurons reflected stochastic trial-by-trial fluctuations. This differential coding was reflectedindistinct timescales of neural dynamics in the two frontal cortical areas. These results suggest a two-stagemodel in which stochastic components of action timing decisions are injected by circuits downstream of those carrying deterministic bias signals.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Murakami, M.
Secondary author(s):
Shteingart, H., Loewenstein, Y., Mainen, Z. F
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Percentiles:
4|2022-03-19
Reference:
Murakami, M., Shteingart, H., Loewenstein, Y., & Mainen, Z. F. (2017). Distinct sources of deterministic and stochastic components of action timing decisions in rodent frontal cortex. Neuron, 94(4), 908-919. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2017.04.040
2-year Impact Factor: 14.139|2017
Times cited: 43|2022-05-20
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q1

Distinct sources of deterministic and stochastic components of action timing decisions in rodent frontal cortex

Distinct sources of deterministic and stochastic components of action timing decisions in rodent frontal cortex