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BIAL Foundation
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cod:"PT/FB/BL-2012-046$"
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File046 - Motivational Intensity in the Prefrontal Cortex2013-032014-07

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012
Location: SEC PCA
Title:
2012 Grants
Start date: 2013-02

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-046
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2012
Title:
046 - Motivational Intensity in the Prefrontal Cortex
Duration: 2013-03 - 2014-07
Researcher(s):
Stephen Fairclough, Christopher Burns
Institution(s): School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Fairclough, S.
Secondary author(s):
Burns, C.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Emotion and motivation / Cognitive processes / Memory / Brain structure and function

DocumentFinal report - Motivational intensity in the prefrontal cortex2014

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012
Location: SEC PCA
Title:
2012 Grants
Start date: 2013-02

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-046
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2012
Title:
046 - Motivational Intensity in the Prefrontal Cortex
Duration: 2013-03 - 2014-07
Researcher(s):
Stephen Fairclough, Christopher Burns
Institution(s): School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Fairclough, S.
Secondary author(s):
Burns, C.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Emotion and motivation / Cognitive processes / Memory / Brain structure and function

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-046.01
Location: SEC PCA - 46/13
Title:
Final report - Motivational intensity in the prefrontal cortex
Publication year: 2014
URL:
https://www.bial.com/imagem/Grant4612.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND/AIM
The aim of this work was to investigate the motivational intensity model (MIM) using measures of brain activation. The MIM has been extensively explored using cardiovascular psychophysiology, however the activation of the prefrontal cortex has not been explored in this particular paradigm. The aim of this study was to investigate how cognitive demand in response to working memory load affected activation of the rostral prefrontal cortex (rPFC) under two conditions: (a) control (no reward) and (b) financial reward. It was hypothesised that the presence of reward would enhance rPFC activation but only when cognitive demand was high.
METHODS
40 participants (20 males) volunteered for the mixed-design study where reward group served as a between-participants factor. Cognitive demand was varied by exposing participants to a working memory task (nback) at five levels of difficulty, e.g. 0-back, 1-back, 3-back, 5-back, 7-back. Demand was estimated to be easy (0-back, 1-back), hard (3-back, 5-back) or impossible (7-back). All participants were paid £10 for taking part in the study, but half of the participants were offered an additional monetary reward of £10 that was linked to their performance on the task. Blood oxygenation in the rPFC was captured using a functional near-infrared spectrography (fNIRS) device that covered the forehead region of the participant and monitored BA10.
RESULTS
The results of the study indicated that blood oxygenation in the rPFC was generally higher in the presence of reward. It was also apparent that activation of the rPFC peaked at the 3-back task for participants in the control group, whereas this peak was observed at the 5-back for participants in the reward group.
CONCLUSIONS
The rPFC responded to both cognitive demand and the presence of a reward. This effect was consistent with the MIM where the level of effort invested into a task is influenced by the likelihood of success and the presence of an extrinsic reward.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Fairclough, S.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
1
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Motivation / Working memory / Prefrontal cortex / Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)

Final report - Motivational intensity in the prefrontal cortex

Final report - Motivational intensity in the prefrontal cortex

DocumentFNIRS activity in the prefrontal cortex and motivational intensity: Impact of working memory load, financial reward, and correlation-based signal improvement2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012
Location: SEC PCA
Title:
2012 Grants
Start date: 2013-02

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-046
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 1/2012
Title:
046 - Motivational Intensity in the Prefrontal Cortex
Duration: 2013-03 - 2014-07
Researcher(s):
Stephen Fairclough, Christopher Burns
Institution(s): School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Fairclough, S.
Secondary author(s):
Burns, C.
Number of reproductions:
1
Keywords:
Psychophysiology / Emotion and motivation / Cognitive processes / Memory / Brain structure and function

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-046.02
Location: SEC PCA - 46/13
Title:
FNIRS activity in the prefrontal cortex and motivational intensity: Impact of working memory load, financial reward, and correlation-based signal improvement
Publication year: 2018
URL:
https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/journals/Neurophotonics/volume-5/issue-3/035001/FNIRS-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-motivational-intensity/10.1117/1.NPh.5.3.035001.short?SSO=1
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Previous research has demonstrated changes in neurovascular activation of the prefrontal cortex to increased working memory load. The primary purpose of the current paper was to investigate overload of working memory capacity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) within the framework of motivational intensity theory. A secondary goal was to explore the influence of the correlation-based signal improvement (CBSI) as a method for correcting the influence of systemic variables. In study one, 30 participants (15 female, mean age = 21.09 years, s.d. = 2.9 years) performed a verbal version of the n-back working memory task under four levels of demand (easy, hard, very hard, and impossible). In contrast to the raw data, CBSI-transformed fNIRS data indicated that neurovascular coupling was highest at hard demand when the task was challenging but success was possible. The second study (N??=??30; 15 female, mean age = 22.4 years, s.d. = 5.3) replicated the working memory manipulation with the addition of low versus high levels of financial reward. Analyses of CBSI-transformed levels of oxygenated (HbO) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin replicated the first study at right lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex (BA46). HHb_CBSI data were significantly reduced at impossible demand for participants receiving the higher level of financial reward. The study is the first to support predictions from the motivational intensity model using neurovascular data. In addition, the application of CBSI to fNIRS data was found to improve the sensitivity of HbO and Hbb to the independent variables.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Fairclough, S.
Secondary author(s):
Burns, C., Kreplin, U.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
1
Percentiles:
6|2022-03-19
Reference:
Fairclough, S., Burns, C., & Kreplin, U. (2018). FNIRS activity in the prefrontal cortex and motivational intensity: impact of working memory load, financial reward, and correlation-based signal improvement. Neurophoton, 5(3), 035001. doi: 10.1117/1.NPh.5.3.035001
2-year Impact Factor: 3.581|2018
Times cited: 13|2022-05-22
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q1
Keywords: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy / Working memory / Prefrontal cortex / Motivation / Reward / Signal processing