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File480 - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative2015-072017-07

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
480 - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative
Duration: 2015-07 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Marilyn Schlitz
Institution(s): Institute of Noetic Sciences, Petaluma (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Schlitz, M.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Retro-active facilitation / Priming / Experimenter effect / Mindset / Parapsychology

DocumentExperimenter effect and replication in psi research2016

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
480 - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative
Duration: 2015-07 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Marilyn Schlitz
Institution(s): Institute of Noetic Sciences, Petaluma (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Schlitz, M.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Retro-active facilitation / Priming / Experimenter effect / Mindset / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480.02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Experimenter effect and replication in psi research
Publication year: 2016
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
This study addressed the replication problem in parapsychology through the examination of experimenter and participant belief in psi and their impact on the outcome of a psi task. The meta-study involved an international collaboration of teachers, student experimenters, and experimental volunteers, who made use of a standardized psi protocol that has been the focus of a number of replication attempts and that allows for a systematic collection of data under well-controlled conditions (Bem, 2011). It included 12 different laboratories across 32 experimenters and 512 participants. While the preregistered hypothesis that was assessed on a participant basis did not show a significant psi effect, when the statistical power was increased by using a single
trial analysis, the primary hypothesis was highly significant. The results did not support a correlation between study outcome and experimenter expectancy. Overall, these results support the feasibility of a multi-laboratory collaboration and show that single trial analysis might be more appropriate and powerful to process these types of data.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Related objects:
BL-2012-233.02
Author: Schlitz, M.
Secondary author(s):
Bem, D., Lobach, E., Rabeyron, T., Bengston, W., Nelson, S., Roney-Dougal, S. M., Moddel, G., Tressoldi, P., Delorme, A.
Document type:
Conference paper-d
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Schlitz, M., Bem, D., Lobach, E., Rabeyron, T., Bengston, W., Nelson, S., Roney-Dougal, S. M., Moddel, G., Tressoldi, P., & Delorme, A. (2016). Experimenter effect and replication in psi research. The Parapsychological Association & Society for Scientific Exploration Joint Convention.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Retro-active facilitation / Priming / Experimenter effect / Mindset

DocumentFinal report - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
480 - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative
Duration: 2015-07 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Marilyn Schlitz
Institution(s): Institute of Noetic Sciences, Petaluma (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Schlitz, M.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Retro-active facilitation / Priming / Experimenter effect / Mindset / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative
Publication year: 2017
URL:
https://www.bial.com/media/2160/29_the-role-of-experimenter-and-participant-mindset_grant_48014.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND
This study addressed the replication problem in parapsychology through the examination of experimenter and participant belief in psi and their impact on the outcome of a psi task.
AIMS
This experiment involves a modified version of the previous attempt where we are influencing expectancies of experimenters and subjects. In this experiment, after showing either randomized pro or anti-psi statements (for participants) and videos (for experimenters), we are assessing the experimenters’ and/or participants’ expectation using questionnaires.
METHOD
This study made use of a standardized psi protocol developed by Daryl Bem that has been the focus of several recent replication attempts and that allows for a systematic collection of data under well-controlled conditions. The study required no instrumentation beyond a desktop computer, thirty minutes per session, and requiring statistical analyses no more complex than a t-test across sessions or participants. Specifically, the replication protocol tested the retroactive priming aspect of experiment 4 of Bem, 2011) by examining reaction time for congruent or incongruent pairing of words and pictures.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
The results of the psi task are the dependent measure for both the psi replication attempts and for the experimenters’ and subjects’ expectancy effects. The pre-registered hypothesis did show a trend in the expected direction for the psi replication (p=0.055, one tailed) but not for the experimenter effect. These results will be published at the PA conference 2018, and will be compiled with results from experiment 233/12 and 189/16 in a peer reviewed and indexed journal article.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Schlitz, M.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
2
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Priming / Expectancy effect / Experimenter effect / Retrocausation

Final report - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative

Final report - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative

DocumentExperimenter effect and replication in psi research II: A global initiative2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
480 - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative
Duration: 2015-07 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Marilyn Schlitz
Institution(s): Institute of Noetic Sciences, Petaluma (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Schlitz, M.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Retro-active facilitation / Priming / Experimenter effect / Mindset / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480.04
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Experimenter effect and replication in psi research II: A global initiative
Publication year: 2018
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT
This replication issue in parapsychology was studied through the examination of experimenter and participant belief in psi and their impact on the outcome of a psi task. This series of three formal experiments employed a standardized psi protocol developed by Daryl Bem that has been the focus of several recent replication attempts and that allows for a systematic collection of data under wellcontrolled conditions. A session lasted no more than 30 minutes per subject. Specifically, the replication protocol tested the retroactive priming aspect of experiment 4 of Bem (2011) by examining reaction time for congruent or incongruent pairing of words and pictures. Study 1 examined expectancies of 32 experimenters and 512 subjects. Study 2 manipulated priming for expectancies by showing either randomized pro or anti-psi statements (for participants) and videos (for 32 experimenters), to assess the experimenters’ and/or expectation using questionnaires in 640 participants. In this article, we are reporting the results of Study 2. The results of the psi task are the dependent measure for both the psi replication attempts and for the experimenters’ and subjects’ expectancy effects. All analyses were run according to the document pre-registered prior to the start of the experiment. Although a trend in the expected direction was observed when comparing congruent image-word pairs versus incongruent ones for all subject combined, it fails to reach the 0.05 (two-tailed) significant threshold. No effect of subjects’ expectancy was observed. Study 3, which is now in process, uses implicit measures to examine expectancies of 32 experimenters and 512 participants.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Schlitz, M.
Secondary author(s):
Bem, D., Cardeña, E. , Lyke, J., Grover, R., Blackmore, S., Tressoldi, P., Roney-Dougal, S., Bierman, D., Jolij, J., Lobach, E., Marcusson-Clavertz, D., Hartelius, G., Delorme, A.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Schlitz, M., Bem, D., Cardeña, E., Lyke, J., Grover, R., Blackmore, S., ... Delorme, A. (2018). Experimenter effect and replication in psi research II: A global initiative. Abstracts of Presented Papers of the 61st Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (p. 23). Petaluma, USA: Parapsychological Association
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Priming / Retro-active facilitation / Experimenter effect / Mindset

Experimenter effect and replication in psi research II: A global initiative

Experimenter effect and replication in psi research II: A global initiative

DocumentTwo replication studies of a time-reversed (Psi) priming task and the role of expectancy in reaction times2021

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
480 - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative
Duration: 2015-07 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Marilyn Schlitz
Institution(s): Institute of Noetic Sciences, Petaluma (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Schlitz, M.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Retro-active facilitation / Priming / Experimenter effect / Mindset / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480.04
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Two replication studies of a time-reversed (Psi) priming task and the role of expectancy in reaction times
Publication year: 2021
URL:
https://journalofscientificexploration.org/index.php/jse/article/view/1903
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Two experiments involving an international collaboration of experimenters sought to replicate and extend a previously published psi experiment on precognition by Daryl Bem that has been the focus of extensive research. The experiment reverses the usual cause–effect sequence of a standard psychology experiment using priming and reaction times. The preregistered confirmatory hypothesis is that response times to incongruent stimuli will be longer than response times to congruent stimuli even though the prime has not yet appeared when the participant records their judgments. The confirmatory hypothesis for Experiment 1 was not supported. Exploratory analyses indicated that those participants who completed the English-language version rather than a translation showed a significant effect, as was the case in the original study; no significant departure from chance was found in data involving non-English translations. Experiment 2 sought to enhance the predicted effect by having each participant read either a pro-psi or an anti-psi statement at the beginning of the experiment to test the pre-recorded hypothesis that a pro-psi statement would produce a larger effect than an anti-psi statement. The results did not support the primary psi hypothesis and there was no effect in the English-language sample. However, there was mixed support for the effect of the psi statement on performance; those participants who received the pro-psi statement had a greater psi score than those who received the anti-psi statement. As in the original experiment, neither the experimenters’ nor participants’ beliefs were significantly associated with the dependent measure. In sum, the pre-registered confirmatory hypotheses were not supported. The importance of the personality variable Sensation Seeking, a component of extraversion, as a correlate of psi performance is discussed as are the challenges and implications for international collaborations and replication in controversial science.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Related objects:
BL-2012-233.03
Author: Schlitz, M.
Secondary author(s):
Bem, D., Marcussion-Clavertz, D., Cardena, E., Lyke, J., Grover, R., Blackmore, S., Tressoldi, P., Roney-Dougal, S., Bierman, D., Jolij, J., Lobach, E., Hartelius, G., Delorme, A.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Schlitz, M., Bem, D., Marcussion-Clavertz, D., Cardena, E., Lyke, J., Grover, R., ..., Delorme, A. (2021). Two replication studies of a time-reversed (Psi) priming task and the role of expectancy in reaction times. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 35(1), 65-90. doi: 10.31275/20211903
Impact factor notes: NA
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Priming / Expectancy effect / Retrocausation / Consciousness / Sociology / Precognition / Psi / Replication

Two replication studies of a time-reversed (Psi) priming task and the role of expectancy in reaction times

Two replication studies of a time-reversed (Psi) priming task and the role of expectancy in reaction times

DocumentExamining implicit beliefs in a replication attempt of a time-reversed priming task2021

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
480 - The Role of Experimenter and Participant Mindset in the Replication of Psi Experiments: Phase II of a Global Initiative
Duration: 2015-07 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Marilyn Schlitz
Institution(s): Institute of Noetic Sciences, Petaluma (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Schlitz, M.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Retro-active facilitation / Priming / Experimenter effect / Mindset / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-480.05
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Examining implicit beliefs in a replication attempt of a time-reversed priming task
Publication year: 2021
URL:
https://f1000research.com/articles/10-5
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND
Psi research is a controversial area of science that examines telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, and psychokinesis (mind over matter). Central to the debate over the existence of psi is of whether independent investigators can replicate reportedly successful psi experiments. One important variable involves the beliefs of experimenters and participants. A preregistered experiment is presented that sought to replicate and extend previously published parapsychology experiments suggestive of precognition by examining implicit beliefs.
METHODS
On each trial of the standard (non-psi) priming task, a pleasant or unpleasant word (the "prime") is briefly shown on computer screen, followed immediately by a pleasant or unpleasant picture. Trials on which the image and the priming word have different valences are termed “Incongruent”; trials on which the picture and the priming word share a common valence are termed “Congruent”. Participants in such experiments typically respond more slowly on Incongruent trials than on Congruent trials. In this "time-reversed" psi version of the experiment, the presumed cause-effect sequence is reversed so that the prime is not flashed until after the participant has already recorded his or her judgment. The experimental hypothesis remains the same: response times will be longer on trials with Incongruent prime/picture pairs than on trials with Congruent prime/picture pairs. Additionally, the study assesses expectations of success on the psi task of 32 experimenters—each testing 12 participants—using self-report questionnaires and the Implicit Association Task (IAT).
RESULTS
A significant correlation was found between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) effect and the participants’ reported beliefs in psi, with the effect in the direction opposite to the hypothesized correlation.
CONCLUSIONS
This study offers an innovative approach to the role of beliefs in psi in a precognition study and speaks to the challenges of replication in controversial science.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Related objects:
BL-2016-189.02; BL-2012-233.04
Author: Schlitz, M.
Secondary author(s):
Delorme, A.
Document type:
Article-d
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Schlitz, M., & Delorme, A. (2021). Examining implicit beliefs in a replication attempt of a time-reversed priming task [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]. F1000Research, 10: 5. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.27169.2
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Priming / Implicit Association Test

Examining implicit beliefs in a replication attempt of a time-reversed priming task [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

Examining implicit beliefs in a replication attempt of a time-reversed priming task [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]