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File062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool2017-112019-04

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2016 Grants
Start date: 2017-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Duration: 2017-11 - 2019-04
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Research Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Author: Storm, L.
Keywords:
Imagery cultivation / Reactance / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Parapsychology

DocumentFinal report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2016 Grants
Start date: 2017-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Duration: 2017-11 - 2019-04
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Research Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Author: Storm, L.
Keywords:
Imagery cultivation / Reactance / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062-01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Publication year: 2018
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND AND AIM
Using a picture-guessing task, and a shamanic-like journeying protocol that accords with the Imagery Cultivation Model, and following principles of reactance theory, this study sought insight into: (i) psi-enhancing effects of Imagery Cultivation (IC); and (ii) detrimental effects of reactance on psi hitting. Since those participants who express extreme disagreement with the reactance prime are found to shift against the position advocated in a threatening message, a measure of ‘discrepancy’ was introduced in order to ascertain the degree to which participants were affected by the reactance manipulation.
METHOD
Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: IC/Reactance; IC/Non-Reactance; Non-IC/Reactance; or Non-IC/Non-Reactance. Participants completed a precognition trial, success indicated by a direct hit (the future target picture was ranked #1 by the participant).
RESULTS
The IC treatment had a minor effect. Reactance group scored more hits than the Non-Reactance group (not sig.), largely attributable to ‘indecisives’ (mid-range paranormal believers). As expected, sheep scored higher than goats (not sig.); also as expected, ‘discrepants’ scored higher (marginally) than ‘non-discrepants’. Relationship between psi scoring and paranormal belief (RASGS) scores was positive and marginally significant.
CONCLUSION
Generally, psi effects were weak but mostly in the directions expected. Changes to the IC treatment may have reduced its effectiveness (comparisons of variations to the IC are advised). The reactance communication, which is supposed to be a threat to freedom, needs revision as it may be too persuasive. More precise measures of reactance treatment effects may be helpful.
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Document type:
Final report
Reference:
Storm, L. (2018). Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Reactance / Imagery cultivation / Imagination / Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect

Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool

Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool

DocumentImagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2016 Grants
Start date: 2017-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Duration: 2017-11 - 2019-04
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Research Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Author: Storm, L.
Keywords:
Imagery cultivation / Reactance / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062-02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Publication year: 2019
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
A psi-conducive altered state of consciousness can be induced through a shamanic-like journeying protocol in accordance with
the Imagery Cultivation (IC) model proposed by Storm and Rock (2009a). Storm and Rock (2009b) found that the protocol helped cultivate psi-related mental imagery. Alternatively, it is hypothesized that individuals who do notbelieve in psi or paranormal phenomena (i.e. ‘goats’) are prone to so-called reactance (Brehm 1966). Reactance is a motivational state aimed at restoring one’s sense of freedom when one feels threatened (Silvia 2005). A reactance treatment in the form of an opinionated communication (perceived as a threat to freedom) can raise reactance, which remains high if no outlet is provided. This induced effect can result in a noncompliant attitude and response, purely as a knee-jerk reaction to the threat. It is hypothesized that higher noncompliant behavior (e.g., psi-missing) can be induced in goats. Storm, Ertel, and Rock (2013) and Storm and Rock (2014) found support for the reactance hypothesis. IC and Reactance principles were used in the present study to manipulate psi in positive and negative directions, respectively. Four groups (total N = 240) were formed: (i) IC/Reactance, (ii) IC/No-Reactance; (iii) No-IC/Reactance, and (iv) No-IC/No-Reactance. The IC treatment produced a non-significant but slightly higher psi effect than the control condition. The reactance treatment had a stronger psychological effect on goats compared with sheep, indicated by a significantly greater discrepancy in goats over the opinionated communication. Significant reactance effects were not found, but specific effects were in the directions expected, with reversals of effects probably due to goats and ‘indecisives’ (mid-range scorers on paranormal belief) in the No-IC/Reactance group. A marginally significant sheep–goat effect was found. Replication attempts would be worthwhile that include refinements to the various IC conditions, and a less persuasive (more challenging) reactance communication.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Storm, L. (2019). Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 33(2), 193-208. doi: 10.31275/2019.1374
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Imagery cultivation / Paranormal belief / Reactance / Psi / Precognition / Sheep-goat effect

DocumentSpiritual emergency and psi: Testing the psychic opening hypothesisin press

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2016 Grants
Start date: 2017-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Duration: 2017-11 - 2019-04
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Research Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Author: Storm, L.
Keywords:
Imagery cultivation / Reactance / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062-03
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Spiritual emergency and psi: Testing the psychic opening hypothesis
Publication year: in press
Accessibility:
Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Goretzki, M.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Storm, L., & Goretzki, M. (in press). Spiritual emergency and psi: Testing the psychic opening hypothesis. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology.
Indexed document: No