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File020 - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions2019-022021-04

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
020 - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions
Duration: 2019-02 - 2021-04
Researcher(s):
Rense Lange, James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems - IKS, Chatham (USA); ISLA - Instituto Politécnico de Gestão e Tecnologia, Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Lange, R.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Anomalous experience / Assessment / Attributional processes / Rasch scaling / Parapsychology

DocumentAnomalous experiences and paranormal attributions: Psychometric challenges in studying their measurement and relationship2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
020 - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions
Duration: 2019-02 - 2021-04
Researcher(s):
Rense Lange, James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems - IKS, Chatham (USA); ISLA - Instituto Politécnico de Gestão e Tecnologia, Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Lange, R.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Anomalous experience / Assessment / Attributional processes / Rasch scaling / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Anomalous experiences and paranormal attributions: Psychometric challenges in studying their measurement and relationship
Publication year: 2019
URL:
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-26091-001?doi=1
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Research on the psychology of paranormal, religious, and delusional belief has been stifled by a lack of careful distinction between anomalous experiences and their corresponding attributions. The Survey of Anomalous Experience (SAE; Irwin, Dagnall, & Drinkwater, 2013) addresses this nuance by measuring proneness to anomalous experience (PAE) and proneness to paranormal attribution (PPA). Using data (351 men, 1,026 women) from 7 previously published studies, we examined the SAE’s internal validity via Rasch scaling and differential item functioning analyses. PPA showed good Rasch model fit and no item bias, but it lacked adequate reliability. Several PAE items showed misfit to the Rasch model or gender bias, though deleting 5 items produced a scale with acceptable reliability. Finally, we failed to validate a 3-category rating scale version with the goal of improving the SAE’s psychometric properties. All 3 formulations revealed a secondary factor related to the items’ extremity rather than contents, suggesting that future research should consider the intensity of respondents’ anomalous experiences and paranormal attributions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Lange, R.,
Secondary author(s):
Ross, R. M., Dagnall, N., Irwin, H. J., Houran, J., Drinkwater, K.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Lange, R., Ross, R. M., Dagnall, N., Irwin, H. J., Houran, J., & Drinkwater, K. (2019). Anomalous experiences and paranormal attributions: Psychometric challenges in studying their measurement and relationship. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6, 346-358. doi: 10.1037/cns0000187
Times cited: 8|2022-03-09
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Anomalous experience / Attribution theory / Paranormal belief / Psychometrics / Rasch scaling

DocumentHaunted people syndrome revisited: empirical parallels between subjective paranormal episodes and group-stalking accounts2020

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
020 - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions
Duration: 2019-02 - 2021-04
Researcher(s):
Rense Lange, James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems - IKS, Chatham (USA); ISLA - Instituto Politécnico de Gestão e Tecnologia, Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Lange, R.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Anomalous experience / Assessment / Attributional processes / Rasch scaling / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020.02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Haunted people syndrome revisited: empirical parallels between subjective paranormal episodes and group-stalking accounts
Publication year: 2020
URL:
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13674676.2020.1767552?journalCode=cmhr20
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Research suggests a Haunted People Syndrome (HP-S) is defined by the recurrent perception of anomalous subjective and objective events. Occurrences are traditionally attributed to supernatural agencies, but we argue that such interpretations have morphed into themes of “surveillance and stalking” in group-stalking reports. We tested a series of related hypotheses by re-analyzing survey data from the 2015 Sheridan and James study to explore statistical patterns in “delusional” group-stalking accounts (N=128) versus“non-delusional” (control) accounts of lone-culprit stalking (N=128). As expected, we found that (i) account types had different Rasch hierachies, (ii) the Rasch hierarchy of group-stalking experiences showed a robust unidimensional model, and (iii) this group-stalking hierarchy correlated significantly with spontanous “ghost“ experiences. However, we found no clear evidence for “event clustering” that might signify contagious processes in symptom perception. Findings support the viability of the HP-S construct and the idea that experiences of group-stalking and haunts share common sources.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Lange, R.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J., Sheridan, L., Dagnall, N., Drinkwater, K., O'Keeffe, C., Laythe, B.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Lange, R., Houran, J., Sheridan, L., Dagnall, N., Drinkwater, K., O'Keeffe, C., & Laythe, B. (2020). Haunted people syndrome revisited: empirical parallels between subjective paranormal episodes and group-stalking accounts. Mental Health, Religion and Culture. doi: 10.1080/13674676.2020.1767552
Impact factor notes: N/A
Times cited: 1|2022-03-09
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Delusions / Encounter experiences / Ghosts / Group-stalking / Rasch scaling / Syndrome

DocumentUnderstanding consumer enchantment via paranormal tourism: Part II - Preliminary rasch validation2020

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
020 - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions
Duration: 2019-02 - 2021-04
Researcher(s):
Rense Lange, James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems - IKS, Chatham (USA); ISLA - Instituto Politécnico de Gestão e Tecnologia, Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Lange, R.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Anomalous experience / Assessment / Attributional processes / Rasch scaling / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020.03
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Understanding consumer enchantment via paranormal tourism: Part II - Preliminary rasch validation
Publication year: 2020
URL:
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1938965520971276
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Situational-enchantment is a hypothesized arousal state encompassing a potent sense of connection or oneness with a
“transcendent power or ultimate reality.” Qualitative research previously suggested that this individual difference involves
dissonance around ideations with competing “Emotional, Sensorial, Timeless, Rational, and Transformative” themes.
We tested this presumed phenomenology via an online convenience sample of 79 men and 101 women who reported
memorable ghostly experiences during a paranormal tour within the last 12 months. Respondents provided a global
enchantment rating of their anomalous experiences, as well as selected specific descriptors from a set of 30 items on
an adjective checklist (ACL). Analyses revealed that 21 items on the Enchantment-ACL formed a Rasch hierarchy of
generally “pleasant” themes that was free of response biases related to age, sex, and latency (time since the “enchanting”
experience). This structured sequence contained all five experiential themes, and the resulting Enchantment-ACL measure
of this phenomenon showed good internal reliability (Rasch reliability = .82) and a positive correlation with global
enchantment ratings (r = .51, p < .001). The other nine items formed a separate factor containing overtly “unpleasant”
ideations. We discuss the results within a cognitive dissonance framework for situational-enchantment, although future
research must explore potential nuances related to the construct’s dimensionality and the specific role of pleasant versus
unpleasant ideations.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Houran, J.
Secondary author(s):
Lange, R., Laythe, B.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Houran, J., Lange, R., & Laythe, B. (2020). Understanding consumer enchantment via paranormal tourism: Part II - Preliminary rasch validation. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly. doi:10.1177/1938965520971276
2-year Impact Factor: 3.646|2020
Times cited: 2|2022-03-09
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q1
Keywords: Cognitive dissonance / Enchantment / Experience economy / Visitor experiences / Rasch scaling / Tourism

DocumentFinal report - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions2021

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
020 - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions
Duration: 2019-02 - 2021-04
Researcher(s):
Rense Lange, James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems - IKS, Chatham (USA); ISLA - Instituto Politécnico de Gestão e Tecnologia, Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Lange, R.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Anomalous experience / Assessment / Attributional processes / Rasch scaling / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions
Publication year: 2021
URL:
https://www.bial.com/media/3543/perceptual-personality-variables-associated-with-anomalous-experiences-vs-paranormal-attributions.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND
Independent research increasingly suggests that subjective parapsychological experiences involve two components driven by potentially different mechanisms: (a) anomalous experiences, versus (b) paranormal attributions.
AIMS
Using the “Survey of Anomalous Experiences” (SAE) measuring Proneness to Anomalous Experiences (PAE) vs. Proneness to Paranormal Attributions (PPA), we aimed to validate PAE and PPA as distinct constructs using Modern Test Theory (MTT) and test the hypotheses that (a) PAE correlates with a permeable mental boundary structure, and (b) PPA correlates with a low analytic cognitive style.
METHOD
Study 1 re-analyzed previously published SAE data (n = 1,377) using MTT methods. Study 2 was an online survey (n = 180) that had experients of anomalous experiences during a recent paranormal tourism activity rate the impact of their experiences using a new Enchantment-Adjective Checklist that referenced emotional, sensorial, timeless, rational, and transformative themes. Finally, Study 3 had online respondents (n = 1.014) complete eight measures to explore their predictive relationships to PAE and PPA via linear regressions and machine learning algorithms: (a) Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, (b) Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale, (c) Synesthesia, (d) Revised Transliminality Scale, (e) Survey of Traumatic Childhood Events, (f) AT-20 scale, (g) Fear of the Anomalous, and (h) Tobacyk’s Revised Paranormal Belief Scale.
RESULTS
Study 1 found that both PAE and PPA had confounds that significantly weakened their measurement properties. We also uncovered a secondary factor related to “item extremity” rather than contents. The intensity of experiences and attributions therefore are critical factors in research. Study 2 observed that 21 items on the Enchantment-ACL formed a Rasch hierarchy of generally “pleasant” themes that was free of response biases related to Age, Sex, and Latency. This hierarchy captured all five experiential themes, and the resulting Enchantment-ACL measure of this “state of enchantment” showed good Rasch reliability (0.82) and a positive correlation with global enchantment ratings (r = 0.51, p < .001). The Rasch loading patterns further suggested that the 21 Enchantment-ACL items also varied along the bi-polar distinction of “Attention” (positive loadings that might reference “detection” of stimuli) vs. “Connection” (negative loadings that might reference the “interpretation” of stimuli). This putative effect and interpretation arguably parallel the concepts of PAE and PPA. Finally, both linear regression models and machine learning algorithms in Study 3 found that: Hallucinations, Synesthesia, Delusional Ideations, and Childhood Trauma (but not age or sex) significantly predicted PAE, whereas Intolerance of Ambiguity, Fear of the Paranormal, and Paranormal Belief (but not age or sex) predicted PPA. However, all independent variables proved useful in predicting both PAE and PPA. This might indicate that the two concepts overlap more so than is currently understood with respect to their underlying mechanisms or structural relationship.
CONCLUSIONS
Both PAE and PPA involve psychometric confounds that can distort model-building and theory-formation in this domain. Still, empirical patterns independent of these confounds suggest that anomalous experiences are related to permeable mental boundaries and paranormal attributions are linked to a low analytic cognitive style. Future research that studies subjective parapsychological experiences relative to attitudes, beliefs, or other individual differences should therefore (a) make clear distinctions between PAE and PPA, (b) use MTT approaches and machine learning methods to avoid measurement issues that can undermine causal models, and (c) explore more nuanced or complex relationships between the processes that drive PAE and PPA.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Lange, R.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Lange, R., & Houran, J. (2021). Final report - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Attribution theory / Psychometrics / Paranormal belief / Anomalous experiences / Rasch scaling

Final report - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions

Final report - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions