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File261 - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals2019-072021-11

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-261
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
261 - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals
Duration: 2019-07 - 2021-11
Researcher(s):
Olivia Gosseries
Institution(s): GIGA research center, GIGA-Consciousness, University of Liège (Belgium)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Language: eng
Author:
Gosseries, O.
Number of reproductions:
3
Keywords:
Trance / Phenomenology / Electrophysiology / Consciousness / Psychophysiology and Parapsychology

DocumentBehavioural and brain responses in cognitive trance: A TMS-EEG case study2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-261
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
261 - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals
Duration: 2019-07 - 2021-11
Researcher(s):
Olivia Gosseries
Institution(s): GIGA research center, GIGA-Consciousness, University of Liège (Belgium)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Language: eng
Author:
Gosseries, O.
Number of reproductions:
3
Keywords:
Trance / Phenomenology / Electrophysiology / Consciousness / Psychophysiology and Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-261.02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Behavioural and brain responses in cognitive trance: A TMS-EEG case study
Publication year: 2019
URL:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1388245719312994?via%3Dihub
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Gosseries, O.
Secondary author(s):
Fecchio, M., Wolff, A., Sanz, L. R. D., Sombrun, C., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Laureys, S.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
3
Reference:
Gosseries, O., Fecchio, M., Wolff, A., Sanz, L. R. D., Sombrun, C., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., & Laureys, S. (2019). Behavioural and brain responses in cognitive trance: A TMS-EEG case study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 131(2), 586-588. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2019.11.011
2-year Impact Factor: 3.214|2019
Times cited: 2|2022-03-09
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q2
Keywords: Tance / TMS-EEG

Behavioural and brain responses in cognitive trance: A TMS-EEG case study

Behavioural and brain responses in cognitive trance: A TMS-EEG case study

DocumentLa transe cognitive auto-induite : caractéristiques et applications thérapeutiques potentielles2021

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-261
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
261 - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals
Duration: 2019-07 - 2021-11
Researcher(s):
Olivia Gosseries
Institution(s): GIGA research center, GIGA-Consciousness, University of Liège (Belgium)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Language: eng
Author:
Gosseries, O.
Number of reproductions:
3
Keywords:
Trance / Phenomenology / Electrophysiology / Consciousness / Psychophysiology and Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-261.03
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
La transe cognitive auto-induite : caractéristiques et applications thérapeutiques potentielles
Publication year: 2021
URL:
https://orbi.uliege.be/handle/2268/259522
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Self-induced cognitive trance is a volitional modified state of consciousness, characterized by a modified awareness of the environment, an intense absorption in the immersive experience, an increase inner imagery, and a modification of somato-sensorial processes. This technique is inherited from traditional Mongolian shamanic practices, where it is generally induced through drumming rhythms during a ritual. In this context, the aim of the shaman is to access trance in order to communicate with ‘spirits’, traditionally considered as guarantors of harmony, to receive useful information for their community. Despite its frequent use in different cultures, this trance phenomenon has not been studied much scientifically. Indeed, only some studies investigated its phenomenological and neurophysiological characteristics. Its potential therapeutic applications are also still unknown. However, we know that other modified states of consciousness, such as hypnosis and meditation, have a positive impact on different quality of life-related variables. Thus, we designed several rigorous studies to better understand self-induced cognitive trance and its therapeutic applications, in particular in comparison with hypnosis and meditation. This article will first describe traditional shamanic practices, then summarize the actual knowledge about the phenomenological and neurophysiological characteristics of self-induced cognitive trance. Finally, its potential therapeutic applications will be discussed.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Grégoire, C.
Secondary author(s):
Sombrun, C., Gosseries, O., Vanhaudenhuyse, A.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
3
Reference:
Grégoire, C., Sombrun, C., Gosseries, O., & Vanhaudenhuyse, A. (2021). La transe cognitive auto-induite : caractéristiques et applications thérapeutiques potentielles. Hegel, 11(2), 192-201. doi: : 10.3917/heg.112.0192
Keywords: Transe cognitive auto-induite / Transe / Neurophysiologie / Phénoménologie / Application clinique

La transe cognitive auto-induite : caractéristiques et applications thérapeutiques potentielles

La transe cognitive auto-induite : caractéristiques et applications thérapeutiques potentielles

DocumentDe la transe chamanique à la transe cognitive : revue de la littérature et approche biopsychosocialeIn press

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-261
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
261 - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals
Duration: 2019-07 - 2021-11
Researcher(s):
Olivia Gosseries
Institution(s): GIGA research center, GIGA-Consciousness, University of Liège (Belgium)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Language: eng
Author:
Gosseries, O.
Number of reproductions:
3
Keywords:
Trance / Phenomenology / Electrophysiology / Consciousness / Psychophysiology and Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-261.04
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
De la transe chamanique à la transe cognitive : revue de la littérature et approche biopsychosociale
Publication year: In press
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
Le chamanisme est une spiritualité ancestrale qui permet de se connecter à l'invisible qui nous entoure, mais aussi à l'invisible qui est en nous. Dans diverses traditions, la transe est induite lors de cérémonies chamaniques, grâce notamment au son du tambour, à la danse ou encore à l’ingestion de plantes psychoactives. La transe se définie comme une modification de l’état de conscience, caractérisée par une conscience lucide mais réduite de l'environnement. Elle est combinée à une augmentation de l’imagerie mentale, une modification de la conscience de soi et des perceptions somatosensorielles, ainsi qu’une altération de la perception du temps et de l’espace. La transe cognitive est dérivée de la transe chamanique et se caractérise par un état de conscience modifiée volontaire et auto-induit par la seule volonté de la personne. La transe cognitive a cette particularité d’être abstraite de tout rituel ou d’expression culturelle. Dans ce chapitre de livre, nous proposons un tour d’horizon de la transe, en partant des traditions chamaniques jusqu’à nos pratiques actuelles. Nous aborderons les aspects sociaux, anthropologiques, psychologiques et biologiques de la transe au travers d’une revue narrative de la littérature. Nous établirons les bases pour pouvoir mieux comprendre cet état de conscience particulier et l’étudier scientifiquement.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
fr
Author:
Lafon, Y.
Secondary author(s):
Grégoire, C., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Gosseries, O.
Document type:
Book chapter
Number of reproductions:
3
Reference:
Lafon, Y., Grégoire, C., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., & Gosseries, O. (in press). De la transe chamanique à la transe cognitive: Revue de la littérature et approche biopsychosociale. In Josse & Struzik, Statas (Eds.), Le deuil et les dimensions invisibles de la Conscience.
Indexed document: No

DocumentFinal report - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals2021

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-261
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
261 - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals
Duration: 2019-07 - 2021-11
Researcher(s):
Olivia Gosseries
Institution(s): GIGA research center, GIGA-Consciousness, University of Liège (Belgium)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Language: eng
Author:
Gosseries, O.
Number of reproductions:
3
Keywords:
Trance / Phenomenology / Electrophysiology / Consciousness / Psychophysiology and Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-261.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals
Publication year: 2021
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
Background:
Shamanic trance is a volitional modified state of consciousness characterized by lucid but narrowed awareness of external surroundings with hyper-focused immersive experience of flow, expanded inner imagery, and altered sense of self. Despite being one of the most ancient spiritual traditions, little is known about the scientifically-based phenomenology and electrophysiological
correlates of shamanic trance.
Aims:
The goal is to characterize the phenomenological experiences of shamanic trance, and measure its electrophysiological brain signatures.
Method:
We conducted a group study on 27 experts in cognitive trance who underwent high-density EEG during rest, auditory stimulations and imaginary task, as well as during trance with and without auditory stimulations. Behavioural assessments were conducted after each condition (free recall and questionnaires).
Results:
Participants felt more awake, more absorbed and more dissociated in trance. Their trances were comparable to a near-death experience, with mystical-type experiences. Trance condition presented a specific speech and higher total words counts compared to the other conditions, which reflects a class of discourse on its own with more richness and vividness. EEG results showed that trance was associated with increased power spectral density in various frequency bands and increased functional connectivity. Auditory event related potentials showed increased P300 amplitude during trance. Body parameters (e.g., heart rate) were also modified in trance.
Conclusions:
These results indicate major changes in trance, both at the phenomenological and neurophysiological level.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Gosseries, O.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
3
Reference:
Gosseries, O. (2021). Final report - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Shamanic trance / Modified states of consciousness / Phenomenology / Neurophysiology

Final report - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals

Final report - Phenomenological experience and neurophysiological correlates of shamanic trance in healthy individuals