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DocumentFinal report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires
Duration: 2015-04 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Ken Drinkwater, Tony Jinks
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Quasi-belief / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires
Publication year: 2017
URL:
https://www.bial.com/imagem/Grant_34014.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVES:
This study examined the degree to which paranormal believers, who profess ‘strong’ belief in the popular expression of a topic known as the primary item (e.g., There is such a thing as extrasensory perception), disagree with related items and/or the putative ‘cause’ of the topic, known as secondary items (e.g., Some people have an unexplained ability to predict the future). It was theorised that scoring differences between primary and secondary items might identify certain kinds of paranormal believer.
METHODS:
The Paranormal Belief Informedness Scale (PBIS) was constructed from extant PB scales - it consists of 10 primary items, & 10 secondary items. PBIS subscale scores were used to identify three major PB types in the sample (N = 343): ‘primary believers’ (who believe in all 10 primary items), ‘primary non-believers’ (who believe in none of the 10 primary items), and ‘mixed believers’ (who believe in only some primary items).
PRELIMINARY RESULTS:
We found significant response-rate differences between primary and secondary items across believer types, and across psi categories (i.e., ESP, PK, and life after death). For the full sample, it was shown that there is a significant relationship between PB and reality testing deficits (IPORT; Lenzenweger et al., 2001), but this relationship tended not to be significant across believer types. There was no evidence in the full sample, or in any believer type, that PB was correlated with depression as measured on the BDI-II (Beck et al., 1996).
CONCLUSION:
We suggest that such relationships are not necessarily linear but may only be monotonic, possibly involving ‘ceiling effects’; linear trends should not be assumed when dealing with predictors of paranormal belief.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
2
Indexed document:
No
Keywords: Depression / Informed belief / Paranormal belief / Primary belief / Quasi-belief / Reality testing / Sheep-goat effect

Final report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires

Final report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires

DocumentA question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires
Duration: 2015-04 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Ken Drinkwater, Tony Jinks
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Quasi-belief / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340.02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires
Publication year: 2017
URL:
https://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/volume-31-number-2-2017
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
This study examined the degree to which paranormal believers, who profess ‘strong’ belief in the popular expression of a topic known as the primary item (e.g., Psychics possess a mysterious ability to know things about a person’s past and future), disagree with related items and/or the putative ‘cause’ of the topic, known as secondary items (e.g., Some people have a mysterious ability to accurately predict such things as natural disasters, election results, political assassinations, etc.). It was theorized that scoring differences between primary and secondary items might indicate certain kinds of paranormal believer, which might then allow us to conduct deeper analyses of paranormal belief (PB) and its putative relationships with deficits and dysfunctions. A complete set of items drawn from ten established PB scales was administered to a sample of 343 respondents. Using Factor
Analysis, we developed the Paranormal Belief Informedness Scale (PBIS), consisting of 10 primary items, and 10 secondary items, scores of which were used to identify three major PB types: ‘primary believers’ (who believe in all 10 primary items, and thus exhibit ‘strong’ PB), ‘primary non-believers’ (who believe in none of the 10 primary items), and ‘mixed believers’ (who believe in only some primary items). We found signifi cant response-rate differences between primary and secondary items across believer types, and across psi categories (i.e. extra-sensory perception, psychokinesis, and life after death). For the full sample, it was shown that there is a significant relationship between PB and reality testing defi cits as measured on the reality testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organisation (IPO-RT) (Lenzenweger et al. 2001). However, this relationship tended not to be significant across believer types. Also, there was no evidence in the full sample, or in any believer type, that PB was correlated with depression as measured on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). We suggest that paranormal believers have differences that may be reflected in their responses to predictor variables, and/or how informed their paranormal belief is.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Storm, L., Drinkwater, K., & Jinks, A. L. (2017). A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 31(2), 31, 187-230.
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Depression / Informed belief / Paranormal belief / Quasi-belief / Primary belief / Reality testing

DocumentThe creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
355 - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief
Duration: 2015-06 - 2017-09
Researcher(s):
Ian Scott Baker, David Sheffield, Malcolm Schofield, Paul Staples
Institution(s): University of Derby, Derby (UK)
Abstract/Results: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Baker, I.
Secondary author(s):
Sheffield, D., Schofield, M., Staples, P.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Supernatural belief / Cognitive Processes / Personality / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355.02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale
Publication year: 2018
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
This study aimed to create and validate a new scale, the “Belief in the Supernatural Scale”. Study one used an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to reduce the initial item pool of 71 items to 44 items and to identify a factor structure with 382 participants. A five factor structure was proposed: “mental and psychic phenomena“, “religious belief”, “psychokinesis”, “supernatural entities”, and “common paranormal perceptions”. The proposed scale was then analysed in study two using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with 318 new participants. The new scale provides a wide range of items and indicates that while religious and paranormal belief show a clear division, spiritual belief is spread amongst the factors indicating that spirituality might be the concept that links religiosity and paranormality. The Belief in the Supernatural Scale BitSS provides a valuable tool that can be used alone, or alongside previous measures for research into supernatural belief.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Schofield, M. B.
Secondary author(s):
Baker, I. S., Staples, P., Sheffield, D.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Schofield, M. B., Baker, I. S., Staples, P., & Sheffield, D. (2018). The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale. Journal of Parapsychology, 82(1), 41-64.
Impact factor notes: Impact factor not available after 2006
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Supernatural belief / Religious belief / Paranormal belief / Spiritual belief / Scale development / Factor analysis

DocumentThe creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
355 - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief
Duration: 2015-06 - 2017-09
Researcher(s):
Ian Scott Baker, David Sheffield, Malcolm Schofield, Paul Staples
Institution(s): University of Derby, Derby (UK)
Abstract/Results: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Baker, I.
Secondary author(s):
Sheffield, D., Schofield, M., Staples, P.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Supernatural belief / Cognitive Processes / Personality / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355.03
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale
Publication year: 2017
URL:
http://parapsych.org/uploaded_files/pdfs/00/00/00/00/79/2017_pa_convention_abstracts_of_presented_papers.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
This study presents the development and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale (BitSS). The BitSS acknowledges the nuanced nature of religious and paranormal beliefs and enables researchers to measure them both together, and separately, with equal degrees of clarity. The measurement of these concepts has been problematic as the primary measure in the field, the
revised Paranormal Belief Scale (rPBS) (Tobacyk & Milford, 1983), contains a ‘traditional religious belief’ subscale indicating that religious belief is regarded by researchers as being an aspect of paranormal belief. The term ‘supernatural belief’ has been used to refer to either ‘paranormal’ or ‘religious’ concepts and such arbitrary usage is dependent upon what the researcher is investigating. In contrast, Metaphysical Chauvinism theory (Beck & Miller, 2001) suggests that people can believe in different ‘supernatural’ concepts and that there should be a separation of religious and paranormal beliefs. While measures such as the rPBS and the Australian Sheep Goat Scale (ASGS) are sound measures, there is a need for a scale that can measure the overarching concept of supernatural belief, incorporating both religious and paranormal beliefs, whilst maintaining the distinctions between them. Two studies were carried out to create and validate a new scale to measure supernatural belief. A total of 382 participants (study one) and 318 (study two) were recruited from the University of Derby and via social media. In study one an item pool was created by taking items from previous scales that measure religious, spiritual, and paranormal belief.
There were three stages in the process of selecting items for the item pool; stage one was the initial search for scales to draw items from; stage two was an evaluation of the scales from the initial search; the third and final stage was the evaluation and possible modification of the items. A 204-item pool for the new scale was generated. This was reduced to a pool of 71 items after
review by experts and non-experts assessing for face validity and if they agreed the items were measuring religious, spiritual, or paranormal belief, this was then analysed using inter-rater reliability showing a ‘fair agreement’ between reviewers. An Exploratory Factor Analysis was run on the 71 items to establish item redundancy and initial factor groupings in the proposed scale. A 44 item, five factor solution was selected. The factors were labelled in the following way: factor one was named ‘mental and psychic phenomena’ due to the items in the factor related to such things as ESP or mental telepathy. Factor two was labelled ‘religious belief’, with the items focussing mainly on religious belief and different aspects of God. The third factor was named
‘psychokinesis’, having items that related to concepts such as levitation or the movement of objects using the mind. The fourth factor was named ‘supernatural entities’, with items relating to supernatural beings such as demons, angels or a supreme being. The fifth factor was named ‘common paranormal perceptions’, having items that relate to haunting or poltergeists. The aim of study two was to conduct a Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the BitSS developed in study one using a fresh sample of participants. The fit indices showed that the data were not a perfect match to the model. It was concluded that this was due to the model’s complexity and the large sample size. Therefore, the model structure and the number of items were retained. The model was also correlated with three other measures of spirituality, religiosity, and paranormal belief. The BitSS scale highly correlated with the scale measuring paranormal belief, and moderately with the other two scales. The BitSS scale showed good test-retest reliability with a three-month follow-up study showing a high correlation. The new scale successfully captures the nature of supernatural belief and provides a wide range of items. The clear delineation of religious and paranormal belief emerging from these factor analyses supports the Metaphysical Chauvinism theory (Beck & Miller, 2001) and concurs with previous research that distinguishes religious and paranormal believers. This further strengthens the proposition that religious belief should not be defined as a paranormal belief. The five factors of the new scale encompass the aspects of the supernatural well and are easy to interpret, by having a strong meaning based on theory, research and previous scales and factors. The new scale provides insight into how these three concepts of religious, spiritual and paranormal belief might fit together. While religious and paranormal belief show a clear divide, spiritual belief is spread amongst the factors. While the rPBS is a psychometrically sound scale the BitSS has more items covering fewer factors than the rPBS and arguably a clearer factor structure. The BitSS adds another useful tool for the measurement of these types of belief that can be used alongside the rPBS, ASGS and other measures to assess the personality and cognitive correlates of these types of belief.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Schofield, M.
Secondary author(s):
Baker, I. S., Staples, P., Sheffield, D.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Schofield, M., Baker, I. S., Staples, P., & Sheffield, D. (2017). The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale. In Abstracts of Presented Papers, 60th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp. 21-22), Athens, Greece: Parapsychological Association.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Supernatural belief / Religious belief / Paranormal belief / Spiritual belief / Scale development / Factor analysis

The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale

The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale

DocumentExploring the perceptual biases associated with believing and disbelieving in paranormal phenomena2014

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a 22 /2006
Title:
2006 Grants
Start date: 2007-01 - 2013-11
Dimension/support:
22 caixas de arquivo

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
169 - Exploring the relationship between paranormal belief, the propensity to make the type I error and the detection of paranormal and weak signals amid visual and auditory noise
Duration: 2009-09 - 2011-01
Researcher(s):
Christine Simmonds-Moore
Institution(s): Liverpool Hope University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Personality factors

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2006-169.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 13/2006
Title:
Exploring the perceptual biases associated with believing and disbelieving in paranormal phenomena
Publication year: 2014
URL:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810014000907
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Ninety-five participants (32 believers, 30 disbelievers and 33 neutral believers in the paranormal) participated in an experiment comprising one visual and one auditory block of trials. Each block included one ESP, two degraded stimuli and one random trial. Each trial included 8 screens or epochs of “random” noise. Participants entered a guess if they perceived a stimulus or changed their mind about stimulus identity, rated guesses for confidence and made notes during each trial. Believers and disbelievers did not differ in the number of guesses made, or in their ability to detect degraded stimuli. Believers displayed a trend toward making faster guesses for some conditions and significantly higher confidence and more misidentifications concerning guesses than disbelievers. Guesses, misidentifications and faster response latencies were generally more likely in the visual than auditory conditions. ESP performance was no different from chance. ESP performance did not differ between belief groups or sensory modalities.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Simmonds-Moore, C. (2014). Exploring the perceptual biases associated with believing and disbelieving in paranormal phenomena. Consciousness and Cognition, 28, 30-46. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2014.06.004
2-year Impact Factor: 1.941|2014
Times cited: 4|2020-04-02
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q3
Keywords: Paranormal belief / Skepticism / Type I error / Type II error / Apophenia / Degraded stimuli / Extrasensory perception / Creativity / Implicit detection system

DocumentFinal report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2016 Grants
Start date: 2017-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Duration: 2017-11 - 2019-04
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Research Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Author: Storm, L.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Imagery cultivation / Reactance / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062-01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Publication year: 2018
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND AND AIM
Using a picture-guessing task, and a shamanic-like journeying protocol that accords with the Imagery Cultivation Model, and following principles of reactance theory, this study sought insight into: (i) psi-enhancing effects of Imagery Cultivation (IC); and (ii) detrimental effects of reactance on psi hitting. Since those participants who express extreme disagreement with the reactance prime are found to shift against the position advocated in a threatening message, a measure of ‘discrepancy’ was introduced in order to ascertain the degree to which participants were affected by the reactance manipulation.
METHOD
Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: IC/Reactance; IC/Non-Reactance; Non-IC/Reactance; or Non-IC/Non-Reactance. Participants completed a precognition trial, success indicated by a direct hit (the future target picture was ranked #1 by the participant).
RESULTS
The IC treatment had a minor effect. Reactance group scored more hits than the Non-Reactance group (not sig.), largely attributable to ‘indecisives’ (mid-range paranormal believers). As expected, sheep scored higher than goats (not sig.); also as expected, ‘discrepants’ scored higher (marginally) than ‘non-discrepants’. Relationship between psi scoring and paranormal belief (RASGS) scores was positive and marginally significant.
CONCLUSION
Generally, psi effects were weak but mostly in the directions expected. Changes to the IC treatment may have reduced its effectiveness (comparisons of variations to the IC are advised). The reactance communication, which is supposed to be a threat to freedom, needs revision as it may be too persuasive. More precise measures of reactance treatment effects may be helpful.
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Storm, L. (2018). Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Reactance / Imagery cultivation / Imagination / Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect

Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool

Final report - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool

DocumentImagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2016 Grants
Start date: 2017-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
062 - Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Duration: 2017-11 - 2019-04
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Research Centre, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide (Australia)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Article
Author: Storm, L.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Imagery cultivation / Reactance / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2016-062-02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool
Publication year: 2019
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
A psi-conducive altered state of consciousness can be induced through a shamanic-like journeying protocol in accordance with
the Imagery Cultivation (IC) model proposed by Storm and Rock (2009a). Storm and Rock (2009b) found that the protocol helped cultivate psi-related mental imagery. Alternatively, it is hypothesized that individuals who do notbelieve in psi or paranormal phenomena (i.e. ‘goats’) are prone to so-called reactance (Brehm 1966). Reactance is a motivational state aimed at restoring one’s sense of freedom when one feels threatened (Silvia 2005). A reactance treatment in the form of an opinionated communication (perceived as a threat to freedom) can raise reactance, which remains high if no outlet is provided. This induced effect can result in a noncompliant attitude and response, purely as a knee-jerk reaction to the threat. It is hypothesized that higher noncompliant behavior (e.g., psi-missing) can be induced in goats. Storm, Ertel, and Rock (2013) and Storm and Rock (2014) found support for the reactance hypothesis. IC and Reactance principles were used in the present study to manipulate psi in positive and negative directions, respectively. Four groups (total N = 240) were formed: (i) IC/Reactance, (ii) IC/No-Reactance; (iii) No-IC/Reactance, and (iv) No-IC/No-Reactance. The IC treatment produced a non-significant but slightly higher psi effect than the control condition. The reactance treatment had a stronger psychological effect on goats compared with sheep, indicated by a significantly greater discrepancy in goats over the opinionated communication. Significant reactance effects were not found, but specific effects were in the directions expected, with reversals of effects probably due to goats and ‘indecisives’ (mid-range scorers on paranormal belief) in the No-IC/Reactance group. A marginally significant sheep–goat effect was found. Replication attempts would be worthwhile that include refinements to the various IC conditions, and a less persuasive (more challenging) reactance communication.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Storm, L. (2019). Imagination and reactance in a psi task using the imagery cultivation model and a fuzzy set encoded target pool. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 33(2), 193-208. doi: 10.31275/2019.1374
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Imagery cultivation / Paranormal belief / Reactance / Psi / Precognition / Sheep-goat effect

DocumentDifferences in gambling approaches between informed paranormal believers and quasi-believers: A pilot study 2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires
Duration: 2015-04 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Ken Drinkwater, Tony Jinks
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Quasi-belief / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340.03
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Differences in gambling approaches between informed paranormal believers and quasi-believers: A pilot study
Publication year: 2018
URL:
https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=122405693011702;res=IELHSS
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT
This pilot study examined the relationship between paranormal belief and gambling attitudes and behaviours, and thus extends previous research on informedness in relation to paranormal beliefs (Storm, Drinkwater, and Jinks, 2017). The newly constructed Paranormal Belief Informedness Scale (Storm et al., 2017) was used to select four interviewees from a sample of 85 respondents. Prior to the interviews, level of informedness in relation to paranormal beliefs was the main selection criterion for determining interviewee suitability. Five types of gambling were covered (Bingo, Cards, Horses, Slot Machines, and Sports Betting), which served to guide the thematic process, and led to the generation of basic themes and subsequent organising themes. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis; a qualitative method that classifies configurations and patterns found in transcript material. Generally, interviews revealed a wide range of themes associated with a propensity to gamble. Interviewees expressed views outlining perceived control, luck, paranormal (including superstitious) belief, and gambling strategies that they employed. A range of gambling fallacies and ineffectual strategies seemed to perpetuate gambling attitudes and consequently drive gambling behaviours, but reports differed between informed believers and quasi-believers (i.e., the latter are those who have not fully considered the implications of their beliefs). Most salient were the statements indicating informed paranormal believers were less likely to commit the gambler's fallacy and engage in fruitless gambling strategies. Findings provide important insights into the assumptions made about paranormal beliefs and gambling attitudes and behaviours.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Drinkwater, K.
Secondary author(s):
Storm, L., Jinks, A. L.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Drinkwater, K., Storm, L., & Jinks, A. L. (2018). Differences in gambling approaches between informed paranormal believers and quasi-believers: A pilot study. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 18(2), 153-183.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Paranormal belief / Gambling

DocumentPersonality, cognition, and morbidity in the understanding of paranormal belief2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 1 a
Title:
2008 Grants
Start date: 2009-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-159
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2008
Title:
159 - Developing a “Recipe” for Success in ESP Experimental Research (Phase III): Integrating Psi-conducive Practices
Duration: 2009-01 - 2011-01
Researcher(s):
José M. Pérez Navarro
Institution(s): University of Greenwich, Eltham, London (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Financial report and expenditure documents
Progress reports
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Pérez Navarro, J. M.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Extrasensory perception (ESP) / Assessment tools / Ganzfeld studies

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2008-159.04
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pasta 7/2008
Title:
Personality, cognition, and morbidity in the understanding of paranormal belief
Publication year: 2019
URL:
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pchj.295
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
A large number of theories about the development and maintenance of paranormal beliefs have been raised in the literature. There is, however, a lack of studies designed to integrate the different perspectives. We reviewed the literature and explored a series of factors in a sample of 180 individuals. Seven variables showed significant correlation indices at a = .01. A regression analysis revealed subjective paranormal experience as the variable that contributed the most to the explanation of paranormal belief, z = .43, 95% confidence interval (CI) [.24, .56]. Need for achievement (z = .31, 95% CI [.11, to .46]), conditional reasoning (z = .10, 95% CI [.09, .28]), and schizotypy (z = .29, 95% CI [.09, .45]) also contributed significantly in the equation. The associations found between the subscales of the Needs Questionnaire and belief in the paranormal support the hipothesis that paranormal belief may serve basic psychological needs. Similarly, the association found in the case of schizotypy suggests that paranormal belief might be held within the context of psychopathology. There was no evidence, however, supporting the hypothesis of a reasoning deficit in believers. It was concluded that, once paranormal beliefs develop, there is an interaction between belief and experience that strongly contributes towards its maintenance.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Pérez Navarro, J. M.
Secondary author(s):
Guerra, X. M.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Pérez Navarro, J. M., & Guerra, X. M. (2019). Personality, cognition, and morbidity in the understanding of paranormal belief. PsyCh Journal. doi: 10.1002/pchj.295
2-year Impact Factor: 0.785|2019
Times cited: 0|2020-07-30
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q4
Keywords: Cognitive bias / Paranormal belief / Personality / Schizotypy

DocumentAnomalous experiences and paranormal attributions: Psychometric challenges in studying their measurement and relationship2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
020 - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions
Duration: 2019-02 - 2021-04
Researcher(s):
Rense Lange, James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems - IKS, Chatham (USA); ISLA - Instituto Politécnico de Gestão e Tecnologia, Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Lange, R.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Anomalous experience / Assessment / Attributional processes / Rasch scaling / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Anomalous experiences and paranormal attributions: Psychometric challenges in studying their measurement and relationship
Publication year: 2019
URL:
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-26091-001?doi=1
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Research on the psychology of paranormal, religious, and delusional belief has been stifled by a lack of careful distinction between anomalous experiences and their corresponding attributions. The Survey of Anomalous Experience (SAE; Irwin, Dagnall, & Drinkwater, 2013) addresses this nuance by measuring proneness to anomalous experience (PAE) and proneness to paranormal attribution (PPA). Using data (351 men, 1,026 women) from 7 previously published studies, we examined the SAE’s internal validity via Rasch scaling and differential item functioning analyses. PPA showed good Rasch model fit and no item bias, but it lacked adequate reliability. Several PAE items showed misfit to the Rasch model or gender bias, though deleting 5 items produced a scale with acceptable reliability. Finally, we failed to validate a 3-category rating scale version with the goal of improving the SAE’s psychometric properties. All 3 formulations revealed a secondary factor related to the items’ extremity rather than contents, suggesting that future research should consider the intensity of respondents’ anomalous experiences and paranormal attributions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Lange, R.,
Secondary author(s):
Ross, R. M., Dagnall, N., Irwin, H. J., Houran, J., Drinkwater, K.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Lange, R., Ross, R. M., Dagnall, N., Irwin, H. J., Houran, J., & Drinkwater, K. (2019). Anomalous experiences and paranormal attributions: Psychometric challenges in studying their measurement and relationship. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6, 346-358. doi: 10.1037/cns0000187
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Anomalous experience / Attribution theory / Paranormal belief / Psychometrics / Rasch scaling

DocumentMy brain is cool: A thematic analysis of exceptional experiences among sceptics2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012
Location: SEC PCA
Title:
2012 Grants
Start date: 2013-02

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-272
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 17 e 18/2012
Title:
272 - Exploring the interactions between paranormal belief and disbelief and subjective experiences with the Shakti helmet
Duration: 2013-09 - 2016-12
Researcher(s):
Christine Simmonds-Moore, Don Rice, Ron Hopkins, Richard LaFleur, Chase O’Gwin
Institution(s): Psychology Department, University of West Georgia, Carrollton (USA)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Progress reports
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Secondary author(s):
Rice, D., Hopkins, R., LaFleur, R.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Parapsychology / Paranormal belief / Anomalous cognition/experiences

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2012-272.05
Location: Arquivo PCA - Pastas 17 e 18/2012
Title:
My brain is cool: A thematic analysis of exceptional experiences among sceptics
Publication year: 2019
URL:
https://web.a.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=00379751&AN=139109615&h=9te%2bhlLpQtp3Jxm1G7%2biCaDl2Fxl7VWvq2LDajUaXvuhAkBtMQg72g8CyfD60%2fu8m6YIjuZovHch9AUDrWd2nQ%3d%3d&crl=f&resultNs=AdminWebAuth&resultLocal=ErrCrlNotAuth&crlhashurl=login.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26profile%3dehost%26scope%3dsite%26authtype%3dcrawler%26jrnl%3d00379751%26AN%3d139109615
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
Disbelief in paranormal phenomena has been relatively under-researched in the literature. Thirty-three strong disbelievers participated in a laboratory study designed to encourage exceptional experiences (ExE). Participants relaxed under sensory deprivation conditions on three occasions. On two out of three occasions, they wore a sham head device, which has been previously associated with ExE. Twenty-four participants reported ExE. Verbal descriptions of ExE were analyzed using Thematic Analysis (TA). Four themes were identified: intensified thoughts and perception-like imagery, actorobserver separation, attributions of normality, and autonomy versus control. This study complements and extends the existing literature on the psychology of paranormal disbelief and skepticism.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Simmonds-Moore, C.
Secondary author(s):
Rice, D., O'gwin, C.
Document type:
Article
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Simmonds-Moore, C., Rice, D., & O'gwin, C. (2019). My brain is cool: A thematic analysis of exceptional experiences among sceptics. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 84(4), 193-211.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Exceptional experiences / Paranormal belief / Thematic Analysis / Placebo

File123 - A latent profile analysis and structural equation modelling of paranormal belief, psychopathological symptoms, and well-being2021-02

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2020
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2020 Grants
Start date: 2021-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2020-123
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
123 - A latent profile analysis and structural equation modelling of paranormal belief, psychopathological symptoms, and well-being
Duration: 2021-02
Researcher(s):
Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall
Institution(s): Health, Psychology and Communities, Manchester Metropolitan University (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Language: eng
Notes:
Ongoing project
Author: Denovan, A.
Secondary author(s):
Dagnall, N.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Paranormal belief / Psychopathology / Well-being / Parapsychology

DocumentFinal report - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions2021

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2018 Grants
Start date: 2019-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
020 - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions
Duration: 2019-02 - 2021-04
Researcher(s):
Rense Lange, James Houran
Institution(s): Integrated Knowledge Systems - IKS, Chatham (USA); ISLA - Instituto Politécnico de Gestão e Tecnologia, Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Research Funding Agreement
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Lange, R.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J.
Number of reproductions:
2
Keywords:
Anomalous experience / Assessment / Attributional processes / Rasch scaling / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2018-020.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions
Publication year: 2021
URL:
https://www.bial.com/media/3543/perceptual-personality-variables-associated-with-anomalous-experiences-vs-paranormal-attributions.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND
Independent research increasingly suggests that subjective parapsychological experiences involve two components driven by potentially different mechanisms: (a) anomalous experiences, versus (b) paranormal attributions.
AIMS
Using the “Survey of Anomalous Experiences” (SAE) measuring Proneness to Anomalous Experiences (PAE) vs. Proneness to Paranormal Attributions (PPA), we aimed to validate PAE and PPA as distinct constructs using Modern Test Theory (MTT) and test the hypotheses that (a) PAE correlates with a permeable mental boundary structure, and (b) PPA correlates with a low analytic cognitive style.
METHOD
Study 1 re-analyzed previously published SAE data (n = 1,377) using MTT methods. Study 2 was an online survey (n = 180) that had experients of anomalous experiences during a recent paranormal tourism activity rate the impact of their experiences using a new Enchantment-Adjective Checklist that referenced emotional, sensorial, timeless, rational, and transformative themes. Finally, Study 3 had online respondents (n = 1.014) complete eight measures to explore their predictive relationships to PAE and PPA via linear regressions and machine learning algorithms: (a) Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, (b) Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale, (c) Synesthesia, (d) Revised Transliminality Scale, (e) Survey of Traumatic Childhood Events, (f) AT-20 scale, (g) Fear of the Anomalous, and (h) Tobacyk’s Revised Paranormal Belief Scale.
RESULTS
Study 1 found that both PAE and PPA had confounds that significantly weakened their measurement properties. We also uncovered a secondary factor related to “item extremity” rather than contents. The intensity of experiences and attributions therefore are critical factors in research. Study 2 observed that 21 items on the Enchantment-ACL formed a Rasch hierarchy of generally “pleasant” themes that was free of response biases related to Age, Sex, and Latency. This hierarchy captured all five experiential themes, and the resulting Enchantment-ACL measure of this “state of enchantment” showed good Rasch reliability (0.82) and a positive correlation with global enchantment ratings (r = 0.51, p < .001). The Rasch loading patterns further suggested that the 21 Enchantment-ACL items also varied along the bi-polar distinction of “Attention” (positive loadings that might reference “detection” of stimuli) vs. “Connection” (negative loadings that might reference the “interpretation” of stimuli). This putative effect and interpretation arguably parallel the concepts of PAE and PPA. Finally, both linear regression models and machine learning algorithms in Study 3 found that: Hallucinations, Synesthesia, Delusional Ideations, and Childhood Trauma (but not age or sex) significantly predicted PAE, whereas Intolerance of Ambiguity, Fear of the Paranormal, and Paranormal Belief (but not age or sex) predicted PPA. However, all independent variables proved useful in predicting both PAE and PPA. This might indicate that the two concepts overlap more so than is currently understood with respect to their underlying mechanisms or structural relationship.
CONCLUSIONS
Both PAE and PPA involve psychometric confounds that can distort model-building and theory-formation in this domain. Still, empirical patterns independent of these confounds suggest that anomalous experiences are related to permeable mental boundaries and paranormal attributions are linked to a low analytic cognitive style. Future research that studies subjective parapsychological experiences relative to attitudes, beliefs, or other individual differences should therefore (a) make clear distinctions between PAE and PPA, (b) use MTT approaches and machine learning methods to avoid measurement issues that can undermine causal models, and (c) explore more nuanced or complex relationships between the processes that drive PAE and PPA.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Lange, R.
Secondary author(s):
Houran, J.
Document type:
Final report
Number of reproductions:
2
Reference:
Lange, R., & Houran, J. (2021). Final report - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Attribution theory / Psychometrics / Paranormal belief / Anomalous experiences / Rasch scaling

Final report - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions

Final report - Perceptual-personality variables associated with anomalous experiences vs paranormal attributions